world war II 1942-1945 japanese-american war Manila, Philippines, 1945.


The Horrors Of War, Intramuros, Manila, Philippines, 1945.

This photo makes me very sad. This mother and daughter were cheated out of their lives and were not allowed to know each others joy in life. And for what reason?
With a trust in God I know they are in a better place now.





The Battle of Manila from 3 February to 3 March 1945, fought by American, Filipino and Japanese forces, was part of the Philippines' 1945 campaign. The one-month battle, which culminated in a terrible bloodbath and total devastation of the city, was the scene of the worst urban fighting in the Pacific theater, and ended almost three years of Japanese military occupation in the Philippines (1942–1945). The city's capture was marked as General Douglas MacArthur's key to victory in the campaign of reconquest.






Released prisoners in makeshift shantytown built in courtyard of Santo Tomas University, formerly used as a Japanese internment camp until its liberation by Allied forces entering the city, Manila, Luzon, Philippines, February 05, 1945


philippine history



Ruins of the Old Fort Santiago resulting from battle for liberation from Japanese during WWII, Manila, Philippines, 1945

During World War II, Fort Santiago was captured by the Japanese. They soon discovered the use of the dungeons and sent many Philippine freedom fighters to there death by either torture or execution. The bottom dungeons were also affected by the tide, so drowning in cells was not uncommon.

The US destroyed the fort during the Battle of Manila in 1945 and was soon restored. The fort sustained heavy damage from American bombs during the Battle of Manila. It was later restored by the Intramuros Administration during the 1980's.




Burning Manila Feburary 27, 1945




The Act of the Declaration of Independence

Philippine Declaration of Independence

In the town of Cavite-Viejo, Province of Cavite, this 12th day of June 1898: BEFORE ME, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, War Counsellor and Special Delegate designated to proclaim and solemnize this Declaration of Independence by the Dictatorial Government of the Philippines, pursuant to, and by virtue of, a Decree issued by the Egregious Dictator Don Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy,

The undersigned assemblage of military chiefs and others of the army who could not attend, as well as the representatives of the various towns,

Taking into account the fact that the people of this country are already tired of bearing the ominous yoke of Spanish domination,

Because of arbitrary arrests and abuses of the Civil Guards who cause deaths in connivance with and even under the express orders of their superior officers who at times would order the shooting of those placed under arrest under the pretext that they attempted to escape in violation of known Rules and Regulations, which abuses were left unpunished, and because of unjust deportations of illustrious Filipinos, especially those decreed by General Blanco at the instigation of the Archbishop and the friars interested in keeping them in ignorance for egoistic and selfish ends, which deportations were carried out through processes more execrable than those of the Inquisition which every civilized nation repudiates as a trial without hearing,

Had resolved to start a revolution in August 1896 in order to regain the independence and sovereignty of which the people had been deprived by Spain through Governor Miguel Lopez de Legazpi who, continuing the course followed by his predecessor Ferdinand Magellan who landed on the shores of Cebu and occupied said Island by means of a Pact of Friendship with Chief Tupas, although he was killed in battle that took place in said shores to which battle he was provoked by Chief Kalipulako of Mactan who suspected his evil designs, landed on the Island of Bohol by entering also into a Blood Compact with its Chief Sikatuna, with the purpose of later taking by force the Island of Cebu, and because his successor Tupas did not allow him to occupy it, he went to Manila, the capital, winning likewise the friendship of its Chiefs Soliman and Lakandula, later taking possession of the city and the whole Archipelago in the name of Spain by virtue of an order of King Philip II, and with these historical precedents and because in international law the prescription established by law to legalize the vicious acquisition of private property is not recognized, the legitimacy of such revolution can not be put in doubt which was calmed but not completely stifled by the pacification proposed by Don Pedro A. Paterno with Don Emilio Aguinaldo as President of the Republic established in Biak-na-Bato and accepted by Governor-General Don Fernando Primo de Rivera under terms, both written and oral, among them being a general amnesty for all deported and convicted persons; that by reason of the non-fulfillment of some of the terms, after the destruction of the Spanish Squadron by the North American Navy, and bombardment of the plaza of Cavite, Don Emilio Aguinaldo returned in order to initiate a new revolution and no sooner had he given the order to rise on the 31st of last month when several towns anticipating the revolution, rose in revolt on the 28th, such that a Spanish contingent of 178 men, between Imus and Cavite-Viejo, under the command of a major of the Marine Infantry capitulated, the revolutionary movement spreading like wild fire to other towns of Cavite and the other provinces of Bataan, Pampanga, Batangas, Bulacan, Laguna, and Morong, some of them with seaports and such was the success of the victory of our arms, truly marvelous and without equal in the history of colonial revolutions that in the first mentioned province only the Detachments in Naic and Indang remained to surrender; in the second, all Detachments had been wiped out; in the third, the resistance of the Spanish forces was localized in the town of San Fernando where the greater part of them are concentrated, the remainder in Macabebe, Sexmoan, and Guagua; in the fourth, in the town of Lipa; in the fifth, in the capital and in Calumpit; and in the last two remaining provinces, only in their respective capitals, and the city of Manila will soon be besieged by our forces as well as the provinces of Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Pangasinan, La Union, Zambales, and some others in the Visayas where the revolution at the time of the pacification and others even before, so that the independence of our country and the revindication of our sovereignty is assured.

And having as witness to the rectitude of our intentions the Supreme Judge of the Universe, and under the protection of the Powerful and Humanitarian Nation, the United States of America, we do hereby proclaim and declare solemnly in the name and by authority of the people of these Philippine Islands,

That they are and have the right to be free and independent; that they have ceased to have any allegiance to the Crown of Spain; that all political ties between them are and should be completely severed and annulled; and that, like other free and independent States, they enjoy the full power to make War and Peace, conclude commercial treaties, enter into alliances, regulate commerce, and do all other acts and things which an Independent State has a right to do,

And imbued with firm confidence in Divine Providence, we hereby mutually bind ourselves to support this Declaration with our lives, our fortunes, and with our most sacred possession, our Honor.

We recognize, approve, and ratify, with all the orders emanating from the same, the Dictatorship established by Don Emilio Aguinaldo whom we revere as the Supreme Head of this Nation, which today begins to have a life of its own, in the conviction that he has been the instrument chosen by God, in spite of his humble origin, to effectuate the redemption of this unfortunate country as foretold by Dr. Don Jose Rizal in his magnificent verses which he composed in his prison cell prior to his execution, liberating it from the Yoke of Spanish domination,

And in punishment for the impunity with which the Government sanctioned the commission of abuses by its officials, and for the unjust execution of Rizal and others who were sacrificed in order to please the insatiable friars in their hydropical thirst for vengeance against and extermination of all those who oppose their Machiavellian ends, trampling upon the Penal Code of these Islands, and of those suspected persons arrested by the Chiefs of Detachments at the instigation of the friars, without any form nor semblance of trial and without any spiritual aid of our sacred Religion; and likewise, and for the same ends, eminent Filipino priests, Doctor Don Jose Burgos, Don Mariano Gomez, and Don Jacinto Zamora were hanged whose innocent blood was shed due to the intrigues of these so-called Religious corporations which made the authorities to believe that the military uprising at the fort of San Felipe in Cavite on the night of January 21, 1872 was instigated by those Filipino martyrs, thereby impeding the execution of the decree-sentence issued by the Council of State in the appeal in the administrative case interposed by the secular clergy against the Royal Orders that directed that the parishes under them within the jurisdiction of this Bishopric be turned over to the Recollects in exchange for those controlled by them in Mindanao which were to be transferred to the Jesuits, thus revoking them completely and ordering the return of those parishes, all of which proceedings are on file with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to which they are sent last month of last year for the issuance of the proper Royal Degree which, in turn, caused the growth of the tree of liberty in this our dear land that grew more and more through the iniquitous measures of oppression, until the last drop from our chalice of suffering having been drained, the first spark of revolution broke out in Caloocan, spread out to Santamesa and continued its course to the adjoining regions of the province where the unequalled heroism of its inhabitants fought a onesided battle against superior forces of General Blanco and General Polavieja for a period of three months, without proper arms nor ammunitions, except bolos, pointed bamboos, and arrows.

Moreover, we confer upon our famous Dictator Don Emilio Aguinaldo all the powers necessary to enable him to discharge the duties of Government, including the prerogatives of granting pardon and amnesty,

And, lastly, it was resolved unanimously that this Nation, already free and independent as of this day, must use the same flag which up to now is being used, whose design and colors are found described in the attached drawing, the white triangle signifying the distinctive emblem of the famous Society of the "Katipunan" which by means of its blood compact inspired the masses to rise in revolution; the three stars, signifying the three principal Islands of this Archipelago-Luzon, Mindanao, and Panay where this revolutionary movement started; the sun representing the gigantic steps made by the sons of the country along the path of Progress and Civilization; the eight rays, signifying the eight provinces-Manila, Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Laguna, and Batangas—which declared themselves in a state of war as soon as the first revolt was initiated; and the colors of Blue, Red, and White, commemorating the flag of the United States of North America, as a manifestation of our profound gratitude towards this Great Nation for its disinterested protection which it lent us and continues lending us.

And holding up this flag of ours, I present it to the gentlemen here assembled - Don Segundo Arellano, Don Tiburcio del Rosario, Sergio Matias, Don Agapito Zialcita, Don Flaviano Alonzo, Don Mariano Legazpi, Don Jose Turiano Santiago y Acosta, Don Aurelio Tolentino, Don Felix Ferrer, Don Felipe Buencamino, Don Fernando Canon Faustino, (Hijo), Don Anastacio Pinzun, Don Timoteo Bernabe, Don Flaviano Rodriguez, Don Gavino Masancay, Don Narciso Mayuga, Don Gregorio Villa, Don Luis Perez Tagle, Don Canuto Celestino, Don Marcos Jocson, Don Martin de los Reyes, Don Ciriaco Bausa, Don Manuel Santcs, Don Mariano Toribio, Don Gabriel Reyes, Don Hugo Lim, Don Emiliano Lim, Don Fausto Tinorio, Don Rosendo Simon, Don Leon Tanjanque, Don Gregorio Bonifacio, Don Manuel Salafranca, Don Simon Villareal, Don Calixto Lara, Don Buenaventura Toribio, Don Zacarias Fajardo, Don Florencio Manalo, Don Roman Gana, Don Marcelino Gomez, Don Valentin Polintan, Don Felix Polintan, Don Evaristo Dimalanta, Don Gregorio Alvarez, Don Sabas de Guzman, Don Esteban Francisco, Don Guido Yaptinchay, Don Mariano Rianzares Bautista, Don Francisco Arambulo, Don Antonio Gonzalez, Don Juan Arevalo, Don Ramon Delfino, Don Honorio Tiongco, Don Francisco del Rosario, Don Epifanio Saguil, Don Ladislao Afable Jose, Don Sixto Roldan, Don Luis de Lara, Don Marcelo Basa, Don Jose Medina, Don Epifanio Cirisia, Don Pastor Lopez de Leon, Don Mariano de los Santos, Don Santiago Garcia, Don Claudio Tria Tirona, Don Estanislao Tria Tirona, Don Daniel Tria Tirona, Don Andres Tria Tirona, Don Carlos Tria Tirona, Don Sulpicio P. Antony, Don Epitacio Asuncion, Don Catalino Ramon, Don Juan Bordador, Don Jose del Rosario, Don Proceso Pulido, Don Jose Maria del Rosario, Don Ramon Magcamco, Don Antonio Calingo, Don Pedro Mendiola, Don Estanislao Calingo, Don Numeriano Castillo, Don Federico Tomacruz, Don Teodoro Yatco, Don Ladislao Diwa,

Who solemnly swear to recognize and defend it unto the last drop of their blood.
In witness thereof, I certify that this Act of Declaration of Independence was signed by me and by all those here assembled including the only stranger who attended those proceedings, a citizen of the U.S.A., Mr. L. M. Johnson, a Colonel of Artillery.

Original Spanish Text

Acta de la proclamación de la independencia del pueblo Filipino

En el pueblo de Cavite Viejo comprensión de esta provincia de Cavite, a doce de junio de mil ochocientos noventa y ocho: ante mí Don Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, Auditor de guerra, Delegado especial nombrado para proclamar y solemnizar este acto por el Gobierno Dictatorial de estas Islas Filipinas, al efecto y en virtud de la circular que dirigió el Egregio Dictador de ellas Don Emilio Aguinaldo Fami, congregados los infranscristos entre Jefes de su Ejército y representantes de los otros de ellos que no han podido concurrir y vecinos notables de varios pueblos de las mismas, teniendo en cuenta que cansados ya sus habitantes de sobrellevar el ominoso yugo de la dominación española por las aprehensiones arbitrarias y malos tratos que hacía la Guardia Civil hasta causar la muerte por condescendencia, y hasta expresa disposición de sus Jefes que llegaban a veces a ordenar el fusilamiento de los aprehendidos bajo el pretexto de que intentaban fugarse en contravención de lo que se dispone en los Reglamentos de su Instituto cuyos abusos se dejaban impunes y por las deportaciones injustas especialmente las decretadas por el General Blanco de personas ilustradas y de cierta posición social a moción del Arzobispo y frailes interesados en mantenerles en el obscurantismo por sus miras egoístas y codiciosas, deportaciones que se llevan a cabo desde luego mediante un procedimiento más execrable que el de la Inquisición y que rechaza toda nación civilizada por resolverse sin audiencia de los que a él están sometidos, determiaron hacer un movimiento insurreccional en Agosto de mil ochocientos noventa y seis, a recobrar la independencia y soberanía de que les privó España por medio del adelantado Miguel López de Legazpi que continuando el rumbo seguido por su predecesor Hernando de Magallanes, que arribó a las playas de Cebu y ocupó esta Isla por medio de pacto de amistad que celebró con su Rey Tupas, aunque fue muerto en el combate habido en dichas playas a que le provocó el Rey Kalipulako de Manktan, receloso de sus malas intenciones, desembarcó en la Isla de Bohol haciendo también el célebre pacto de sangre de amistad con su Rey Sikatuna para después de tomar por fuerza a Cebu, porque el sucesor Tupas no le consintió ocuparlo, venir a la capital de Manila como así hizo, granjeando igualmente la amistad de sus Reyes Soliman y La Kandela y tomando después posesión de ella por todo el Archipiélago para España, en virtud de las órdenes del Rey Felipe II que dados estos precedentes históricos porque en derecho internacional no es reconocida la prescripción establecida por las Leyes para legitimar hasta la adquisición viciosa de bienes de particulares, no se puede poner en duda la legitimidad de tal movimiento que calmó y no del todo sofocó la pacificación propuesta por Don Pedro A. Paterno con Don Emilio Aguinaldo como presidente del Gobierno Republicano constituído en Biaknabato y aceptado por el Gobernador General Don Fernando Primo de Rivera bajo condiciones que se establecieron unas escritas y otras verbales, entre ellas, las amnistía general para todos los emigrados y condenados: que por incumplimiento de alguna que otra de estas condiciones después de la destrucción de la Escuadra Española por la Norteamericana y bombardeo de la plaza de Cavite, volvió Don Emilio Aguinaldo para iniciar una nueva revolución, y apenas que dio la voz para efectuarse el treinta y uno del mes próximo pasado, algunos pueblos se anticiparon a moverse, y el veintiocho entre Imus y Cavite Viejo fue copada y tuvo que rendirse una fuerza española de ciento setenta y ocho al mando de un Comandante de Infantería de Marina, propagándose este movimiento como chispa eléctrica en los otros pueblos, así de esta misma provincia como de los de Bataan, Pampanga, Batangas, Bulacan, Laguna y Morong, algunos con puertos y tal es el éxito del triunfo de nuestras armas verdaderamente asombroso y sin ejemplo en la historia de las revoluciones coloniales que en la primera solo quedan por rendirse los Destacamentos de Naie e Indang, en la segunda no existe ya ninguno, en la tercera esta localizada la resistencia de iguales fuerzas en el pueblo de San Fernando en él concentradas la mayor parte y el resto en los de Macabebes, Sesmoan y Guagua; en la cuarta en la Villa de Lipa, en la quinta en la Cabecera y Calumpit; y en las dos restantes en sus respectivas Cabeceras y próxima a estar completamente sitiada la Ciudad de Manila por las nuestras amén de las provincias de Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Pangasinan, Union, Zambales, y algunas otras de las Islas Visayas insurreccionadas en algunos de sus pueblos, en unos casi a raíz de aquella pacificación y en otros aún antes, de suerte que puede darse por segura la independencia de nuestro territorio y reivindicada nuestra soberanía, y tomando por testigo de la rectitud de nuestras intenciones al Juez Supremo del Universo, bajo la protección de la Potente y Humanitaria Nación Norte Americana, proclamos y declaramos solemnemente en nombre y por la Autoridad de los habitantes de todas estas Islas Filipinas, que son y tienen el derecho de ser libres e independientes, que están desligadas de toda obediencia a la Corona de España, que todo lazo politico entre unos y otra, está y debe estar completamente roto y anulado y que como todos los Estados libres e independientes, tienen plena Autoridad para hacer la Guerra, concluir la paz, celebrar tratados mercantiles, contraer alianzas, reglamentar el Comercio y realizar todos demás actos y cosas que los Estados Independientes tienen el derecho de hacer, y poseídos de firme confianza en la protección de la Divina Providencia, comprometemos mutuamente para sostenimiento de esta declaración, nuestras vidas, nuestras fortunas y nuestro bien más sagrado que es el honor. Admitimos, aprobamos y confirmamos con las disposiciones emanadas de ellas, la Dictadura constituída por Don Emilio Aguinaldo a quien acatamos como Jefe Supremo de esta Nación que empieza ya hoy a tener vida propia, por creer haber sido el instrumento elegido por Dios, a pesar de sus humildes dotes para efectuar la redención de este desdichado pueblo, preconizada por el Doctor Don José Rizal en los versos magníficos que compuso al ser puesto en Capilla para ser fusilado, librádole del yugo dela dominación Española en castigo de la impunidad que su Gobierno dejaba de los abusos que cometían sus subordinados, y de los fusilamientos injustos de dicho Rizal y otros que fueron sacrificados para contentar a la frailocracia insaciable en s used hidrópica de venganza y de exterminio de todos los que se oponen a sus maquiavélicos fines con conculcación del Código Penal que dio para estas Islas, y de los de personas meramente sospechosas, ordenados por los Jefes de Destacamentos, a instigación de los frailes sin forma ni figura de juicio y sin auxilio spiritual de nuestra sagrada Religión, igualmente que para el mismo fin fueron ahorcados los eminentes patricios curas filipinos Doctor Don José Burgos, Don Mariano Gómez y Don Jacinto Zamora, cuya sangre inocente derramada en virtud de intriga de esas corporaciones mal llamadas religiosas que simularon la insurrección militar estallada la noche del veintiuno de enero de mil ochocientos setenta y dos en el fuerte de San Felipe de la plaza de Cavite, atribuyendo su promoción a dichos mártires para impedir el cumplimiento del Decreto-Sentencia dictado por el Consejo de Estado en el recurso contencioso Administrativo interpuesto por el Clero Secular contra las Reales Ordenes por las que se mandó entregar los curatos que poseía en este Arzobispado a los Recoletanos en cambio de los que regentaban en Mindanao que se cedían a los Jesuítas, revocándolas por completo y ordenando la devolución de aquellos curatos cuyo expediente quedó archivado en el Ministerio de Ultramar; a donde fue remitido en los últimos meses del año anterior para extender la oportuna Real Prohibición; fue la que hizo brotar el árbol de la libertad de este nuestro querido suelo, haciéndolo crecer los inicuos procedimientos empleados para oprimirnos más y más, hasta que agotada la última gota del cáliz de nuestros sufrimientos, estalló la pasada insurrección en Caloocan, se propagó en Santamesa y continuó con las inmediatas en esta provincial, donde el heroísmo sin igual de sus habitantes dio al traste con los combates del General Blanco, y contuvo a las numerosas huestes del General Polavieja por espacio de tres meses, sin los elementos de guerra de que hoy disponemos y empezando con armas propias de este país qie son el bolo, caña agusada y saeta. Además conferimos a nuestro renombrado Dictador Don Emilio Aguinaldo todas las facultades necesarias para desempeñar dibidamente su Gobierno inclusas las prerrogativas de indulto y amnistía. Y por ultimo se acordó unánimemente que esta Nación ya Independiente desde hoy, debe usar la bandera que hasta ahora sigue usando, cuya forma y colores se hallan descritos en el Adjunto dibujo con el remate que representa al natural con tres referidas armas significando el triángulo blanco como distintivo de la célebre Sociedad “Katipunan” que por medio de pacto de sangre empujó a las masas a insurreccionarse; representando las tres estrellas las tres principales Islas de este Archipiélago, Luzon, Mindanao y Panay en que estalló este movimento insurreccional; indicando el sol los agigantados pasos que han dado los hijos de este país en el camino del progreso y civilización, simbolizando los ocho rayos de aquél las ocho provincias: Manila, Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga, Marinduque, Bataan, Laguna y Batangas, declarando en estado de guerra apenas se inició la primera insurrección; conmemorando los colores azul, rojo y blanco los de la bandera de los Estados Unidos de la América del Norte, como manifestación de nuestro profundo agradecimiento hacia esta Gran Nación por la desinteresada protección que nos presta y seguirá prestando. Y empuñando la dicha bandera la presenté a los Señores congregados: Don Segundo Aveliano, Don Tiburcio del Rosario, Don Sergio Matias, Don Agapito Zialeita, Don Glaviano Alonso, Don Mariano Legazpi, Don José Turiano Santiago y Acosta, Don Aurelio Tolentino, Don Félix Ferrey, Don Felipe Buen Camino, Don Fernando Canon Faustino (hijo), Don Anastasio Gimenez, Don Timoteo Bernali, Don Flaviano Rodriguez, Don Luciano Masancay, Don Narciso Muguya, Don Gregorio Villa, Don Luis Perez de Tayle, Don Canuto Celestino, Don Marcos Foesien, Don Martin de los Reyes, Don Ciriaco Bansa, Don Manuel Santos, Don Mariano Toribio, Don Gabriel Reyes, Don Hugo Lim, Don Emiliano Lim, Don Fausto Tisono, Don Rosendo Simon, Don Leon Tanyangues, Don Gregorio Bonifacio, Don Manuel Salafranca, Don Simon Villareal, Don Calixto Lara, Don Beneventura Toribio, Don Zacarias Fajardo, Don Florencio Manulo, Don Ramon Ganas, Don Marcelino Gomez, Don Valentin Polintan, Don Felix Polintan, Don Evaristo Dimulantu, Don Gregorio Alvarez, Don Sabas de Guzman, Don Esteban Francisco, Don Guido Yap-tinchay, Don Sillariano Rianzares Bautista, Don Francisco Arumbulo, Don Antonio Gonzalez, Don Juan Arevalo, Don Ramon Delfino, Don Honorio Tiengea, Don Francisco del Rosario, Don Epifanio Saguil, Don Ladislao Afable Jose, Don Sixto Rolian, Don Luis de Lara, Don Marcelo Basa, Don Jose Medina, Don Epifanio Ciriaia, Don Pastor Lopez de Leon, Don Mariano de los Santos, Don Santiago Garcia, Don Claudio Tria Tirona, Don Estanislao Tria Tirona, Don Daniel Tria Tirona, Don Andrés Tria Tirona, Don Carlos Tria Tirona, Don Sulpicio P. Antony, Don Epitasio Asuncion, Don Catalino Ramon, Don Juan Bordador, Don José del Rosario, Don Riverso Pulido, Don José Maria del Rosario, Don Ramon Magcanes, Don Antonio Calingo, Don Pedro Mendiola, Don Estanislao Calingo, Don Numercano Castilla, Don Federico Toma Cruz, Don Teodoro Yates, Don Ladislao Dina, los cuales juraron solemnemente reconocerla y defenderla hasta la última gota de nuestra sangre. Por esto lo cual extiendo la presente Acta que forman conmigo los concurrentes en este acto como asi mismo el único extranjero Subdito Norteameriacano Mr. L. M. Johnson Coronel de Artilleria que asistió a el mismo de que certifica.
The declaration, in the form of a proclamation, in the presence of a huge crowd, was done on June 12, 1898 at the ancestral home of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo between four and five in the afternoon in Cavite el Viejo (now Kawit), Cavite, some 30 kilometers south of Manila. The event saw the unfurling of the national flag of the Philippines, made in Hong Kong by Mrs. Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo and Delfina Herboza, and the performance of the Marcha Filipina Magdalo, as the country’s national anthem, today known as Lupang Hinirang, made by Julian Felipe and played by the San Francisco de Malabon marching band.

The Act of the Declaration of Independence was prepared and written by Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista in Spanish, who also read the said declaration. A passage in the Declaration reminds one of another passage in the American Declaration of Independence. The Philippine Declaration was signed by ninety-eight persons, among them an American army officer who witnessed the proclamation. The proclamation of Philippine independence was, however, promulgated on August 1, when many towns had already been organized under the rules laid down by the Dictatorial Government.

The June 12 proclamation was later modified by another proclamation done at Malolos, Bulacan, upon the insistence of Apolinario Mabini, who objected to the original proclamation, which essentially placed the Philippines under the protection of the United States.

philwebsupport - Day of Valor

philwebsupport At dawn, 9 April 1942, and against the orders of Generals Douglas MacArthur and Jonathan Wainwright, Major General Edward P. King, Jr., commanding Luzon Force, Bataan,philwebsupport Philippine Islands, surrendered more than 76,000 (67,000 Filipinos, 1,000 Chinese Filipinos, and 11,796 Americans) starving and disease-ridden men. The majority of the prisoners of war were immediately robbed of their keepsakes and belongings and subsequently forced to endure a 90-mile (140 km) enforced march in deep dust, over vehicle-broken macadam roads, and crammed into rail cars to captivity at Camp O’Donnell. Thousands died en route from disease, starvation, dehydration, heat prostration, untreated wounds, and wanton execution. Those few who were lucky enough to travel to San Fernando on trucks still had to endure more than twenty five miles of marching. Prisoners were beaten randomly, and were often denied promised food and water. Those who fell behind were usually executed or left to die; the sides of the roads became littered with dead bodies and those begging for help. On the Bataan Death March, approximately 54,000 of the 72,000 prisoners reached their destination. The death toll of the march is difficult to assess as thousands of captives were able to escape from their guards. All told, approximately 5,000-10,000 Filipino and 600-650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach Camp O'Donnell.

The "Araw ng Kagitingan" (Day of Valor) celebrates the philwebsupport Filipino gallantry, bravery and heroism in the provinces of Bataan and Corregidor.

The Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) announced April 4 that April 9, 2005 is a regular holiday nationwide in commemoration of the Araw ng Kagitingan. For most people, though, it is really a non-working day because it falls on a Saturday this year.

In celebrating philwebsupport Araw ng Kagitingan, the Battle of Bataan is commemorated and Filipinos pay tribute to fellow citizens who gave up their lives during World War II as well as to the soldiers--now old veterans--who fought in the name of freedom.

Bataan was the last province to surrender to the Japanese invaders during the War. The Battle of Bataan saw local forces alongside American allies engaging in war against the Japanese. After the Fall came the infamous Death March--a long and difficult walk from Mariveles, Bataan to Capas, Tarlac that the captured Filipino and American soldiers were subjected to. For many, it was fatal; almost 10,000 fatigued and starved warriors perished along the trail.

Shrine of Valor atop Mt. Samat
As a tribute to the warriors, a 60-foot cross was erected on Mount Samat in Pilar, Bataan in April 1942. It is called the "Dambana ng Kagitingan," now a World War II military shrine.

The Dambana ng Kagitingan, completed and inaugurated in 1970, consists of the Colonnade and the huge Memorial Cross, the Colonnade being a marble-capped structure with an altar, esplanade (walkway) and a museum.

Calendar of Activities
"ADHIKAIN NG BETERANO GABAY NG KABATAAN MAGPAKAILANMAN"
ARAW NG KAGITINGAN 2005
7 AM - 12 NN @ Mt. Samat

HISTORICAL PLAY (Bataan Dramatics)
"BATAAN: KABAYANIHAN SA MATA NG KABATAAN"
12 NN- 1 PM @ the Shrine of Valor, Mt. Samat

SEAFOOD FESTIVAL
5 PM onwards @ Port Capinpin, Orion

OGIE ALCASID & RACHEL ALEJANDRO CONCERT
7 PM @ Bataan People's Center

Getting There
For those wanting to participate in the annual rites held in honor of the philwebsupport defenders of Bataan along with top government officials and Filipino, American including Japanese WWII veterans, Mt. Samat is only two to three hours from Manila by land (private car or bus) and just an hour by ferry.

By ferry, you can go to the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) Ferry Terminal to Port Orion, from which you can rent a car (and a driver) at the port or a tricycle to the highway. From there, take a bus or a jeepney to Mt. Samat. Bus options include Destiny or Philippine Rabbit Lines, the terminals of which are located in Pasay-EDSA.