Sacred Catholic Royal Majesty:



Letter to Philip II from Diego de Herrera, O.S.A., 1570



When I saw that the affairs of this land had no permanent settlement and no hopes of one, and that the natives were very much molested by the Spaniards, and that so far as I could see God was being served but little in this region because of the great license which men have here for evil and the lack of justice, and that very little service was being rendered your Majesty, since they are ruining excellent lands here for you: I determined last year, sixty-nine, to go to Nueva España in order to give advice of what was passing here in order that some reform might be instituted in this, and to discuss the matter with the viceroy in order that he might relieve the condition as much as he could and give notice of the other things to your Majesty. [I determined] that if the viceroy thought that I ought to go to España to discuss the matter with your Majesty, I would also do so. When I reached Nueva España and discussed this matter with the viceroy, and its great necessity for reform, and the extremely ruinous condition of affairs, he thought that I ought to return and give notice of it to your Majesty. Accordingly he told me that I would be fulfilling the service of God and of your Majesty if I would immediately return to these districts on the first ships. He gave me to understand that until the remedy was specified he could reform some of the evils. Although that order was very grievous to me as I had reached Nueva España ill and worn out by the sea, since the service of two so great lords as God and your Majesty was placed before me, I considered it fitting, and accordingly reëmbarked for these islands on the ninth of March of this year one thousand five hundred and seventy. I reached this island of Panay where the governor is established, on the twenty-second of July. All the people were overjoyed at the reënforcements that your Majesty orders sent them, and with the concessions of the petition made from this land. I found the country in a most ruinous condition and such that more has been destroyed in this one year here than during the past five years. Your Majesty owns so many islands in this district that one is surprised at the number. They are all very rich and fertile and contain many gold mines, pearls, and wax, while some of them have cinnamon. They are thickly inhabited and the people promise better than those of Nueva España. But since your Majesty does not provide anyone permanently and prescribe the manner of living, and protect and defend the natives, and keep justice for them, and power to punish whoever injures them, all will be lost in a very short time, for the policy employed with the natives could last but one year here if there is much greater violence. That consists in robbing them, burning their villages, and enslaving them. If this is not done it is affirmed that it is impossible to find support. This is false, for on the contrary, it is impossible to find support in this manner, for everything is being destroyed [by this manner of acting]; and the natives are becoming so exhausted because they are not left for an instant. However, they all desire peace in an extraordinary manner and to live under the protection of your Majesty and to pay the tribute. They would give the sum asked of them, if they thought that no evil was to be done them. But today they are made friends and on the morrow they are robbed. Many of them have been killed and many villages burned. I am writing this in general although not going into details in anything, in order not to trouble your Majesty. I wrote more at length to the viceroy of Nueva España in order that he might inform your Majesty, for he can easily ascertain whether these things are so from those who come here. This fleet came here at the beginning greatly in need of people who knew how to govern, and the same is true of war, for besides the master-of-camp here, who has died, all the rest know but little as was evident in the war with the Portuguese in Çubu. At that time although the Portuguese were so few, they caused so great extremity that some captains advised the abandonment of the site and retirement to another part; and if the Portuguese did not cause the abandonment while they were there, they caused it when they left, and the strongest site and best port in all these islands, so far as has yet been seen, was abandoned, and we came here to establish ourselves in Panay along the swampy and very poor shore of a river. It will be very much less strong than Çubu and has no port, while it is hot and unhealthful. If your Majesty do not appoint some one to govern, this colony will daily become less, and will fall entirely into destruction. If we are not more firmly established, we religious cannot treat of the conversion of these natives with zeal and care nor with so much fruit as if the land had peace and security.

They sent from here to petition your Majesty to concede them the favor to allow them to rob and enslave the Moros throughout these districts. The reason that they gave for it was to say that they were Moros and that they were preventing and opposing the preaching of the gospel. The statement that they were preventing the preaching of the gospel was false, for they have never prevented it nor do so at present. On the contrary, there is an increase to be observed in families where the husband is a Moro and the wife a pagan, who come in order to beg the religious to baptize their son and make him a Christian; for they do not at all object to each one living according to the belief that he likes best. For all the Moros who live in these islands have been Moros for but few years back. Many of them, such as those of Luçon, have nothing except the name, and the fact that they do not eat pork; for they have no mosque or cacique [sic] (who are their priests). This worship is only a trifle more firmly established among those of the island of Burneo than in the other, although they are also of recent date there. Not all the island is Moro, but only certain villages along the coast, for the inhabitants of the interior are heathens. None of them possess the lands of Christians or wage war on them, or do them any injury; although we do to them, and much, for four or five ships of Burneo have been pillaged and many people killed, while many more from Luçon have been killed, although excellent friends to us. As to the chiefs, they made the land friendly to us; or at least exerted a great influence in that direction. They supplied us with food in abundance and stuff's very suitable for clothing, and gold for our silver, in order that we might barter for our necessities. Now, however, conditions are such that no one dares come [to trade]. I do not believe that any other reason can be given for authority to rob them, except that they are Moros; and that is no legitimate reason and cannot be done.

After we religious came to these districts with the fleet, at your Majesty's command, nothing besides a little rice has been furnished us for our sustenance every week in the same way as to the soldiers. It is a ration, but even with bread a man cannot be supported by it. I have written to that effect to the viceroy of Nueva España so that we may be supplied from there with necessities until there shall be sufficient means of gain in this land from which to supply us; but he either has no authority from your Majesty to do that, or he does not dare unless it be remitted to us here. I entreat your Majesty to please order us to be supplied with an amount each week per religious as is done in Nueva España, in consideration of the fact that our expenses here are heavier than in Nueva España. For the Indians in Nueva España know only how to give, but these Indians here know only how to beg. The soldiers who are here now are so poor that it is necessary to try to give to them and not to beg from them. Consequently, it will be necessary for your Majesty to make us a more liberal concession than to the religious of Nueva España. I believe that one religious can be supported in these regions for two hundred pesos but not with less. I trust, God helping, that the fruit which will be obtained in the conversion in these districts, will be so great that your Majesty will make us other greater rewards. We have hitherto stayed here because we suspected here that your Majesty would order us to abandon this place, but since we now know that it is your Majesty's will that we continue to advance the undertaking, we shall begin to baptize all the people; for although there are some Christians, there would be many more if we had known before what we now know. May our Lord preserve the sacred royal Catholic person of your Majesty for many years, as I your humble and least servant desire. This island of Panay, July 25, 1570. Your sacred royal Catholic Majesty's most humble servant,

basi revolt 1807

Who could have imagined that native sugarcane wine would become a trigger for a Ilocos-wide revolt, which bicentennial we are commemorating this month? And why is it that all we have got to show for it, after 200 years, are 14 paintings that only few ordinary Filipinos have seen?

BY PIO VERZOLA, JR.
Northern Dispatch
Vol. VII, No. 34, September 30-October 6, 2007

Who could have imagined that native sugarcane wine would become a trigger for a Ilocos-wide revolt, which bicentennial we are commemorating this month? And why is it that all we have got to show for it, after 200 years, are 14 paintings that only few ordinary Filipinos have seen?

Why Spain banned basi

The production of native sugarcane wine, or basi, was already a distinct industry in the Ilocos region even in pre-Spanish times. However, it continued to flourish under the Spanish regime, until the authorities began to impose pressures on the natives’ drinking habits.

The reason for this is that Vigan – then known as Ciudad Fernandina, capital of Ilocos Province and founded by illustrious conquistador Juan Salcedo – had meanwhile become an important stop in the galleon trade.

Spain wanted to profit by selling more of its wines to the Ilocos natives. But the basi factories of Ilocos must have been so prosperous in their own right towards the end of the 18th century, that the colonial authorities considered them a growing threat to Spain’s wine trade.

Thus, in 1786, the Spanish regime declared a wine monopoly. The Ilocanos were banned from fermenting and drinking home-made basi. Instead, they were compelled to buy their wine from government stores. (This was in addition to the tobacco monopoly, imposed five years earlier in 1781, which also hit the Ilocano farmers hard.)

After 20 years of resentment against these economic impositions, the Ilocanos had no choice but to fight back.

Revolt breaks out

On Sept. 16, 1807, under the leadership of Pedro Ambaristo, the people of Piddig, Ilocos Norte (rose in revolt against the wine monopoly. They entered Sarrat, Laoag and Batac successively, recruited more rebels, and made the liberated towns their base of operations. The rebels then advanced southward, entering Badoc and Sto. Domingo, ultimately intending to capture the capital Vigan (407 kms north of Manila).

The Spanish alcalde mayor in Vigan sent a 36-man Spanish Army force with a cannon and two platoons of Guardia Civil to attack the rebel force advancing southward in Badoc. The rebels repulsed them and captured the cannon. Town after town fell to the rebels, who recruited more forces along the way to Vigan.

Two weeks later, however, the alcalde mayor led another force of regular Spanish troops. On Sept. 28, 1807, they attacked and defeated the rebel force at what is now Barangay (village) Gongogong on the south banks of the Bantaoay River in San Ildefonso town (411 kms north of Manila).

Thus ended what is now recorded in history books as the 1807 Basi Revolt.

Sparse legacies

Today, 200 years later, written accounts of the revolt are so sparse and half-forgotten, that the episode usually occupies only a few paragraphs in our history books.

There is a distinct possibility that documents from Spanish-period archives, once researchers find them, will provide us with more details of that dramatic event in our history. But it will take more years before these details seep down to ordinary Filipinos through textbooks and mass media.

Thus, it is a sad statement about the value we place on major historical events that in these past week, only a few short items appeared in the national dailies about the 200th anniversary of the Basi Revolt.

One news item reported that the town council of San Ildefonso, Ilocos Sur – the scene of the last battle – passed a resolution declaring September 16 as a non-working holiday in the municipality, and naming an old road in Brgy. Gongogong as Ambaristo Street in honor of the executed revolt leader.

Significantly, basi remains as the town’s main product and is in fact its entry to the government’s “One Town, One Product” program.

Villanueva’s 14 paintings

At this point, however, the most precious remaining legacy of the 1807 Basi Revolt are 14 oil paintings, done by Esteban Pichay Villanueva (1797-1878) in what is called the “naïve art” style.

The paintings, which measure 91.44 cm x 91.44 cm each, are on public display at the Burgos Museum – actually the ancestral house of martyred priest Fr. Jose Burgos in Vigan City and which now serves as the Vigan branch of the National Museum.

The paintings, depicting scenes from the famous revolt, were made in 1821 by Esteban Pichay Villanueva, 14 years after the bloody event. Villanueva was a farmer and unschooled painter, who, according to art teacher Roberto Feleo, used watercolor brushes to paint oils.

The 14 panels successively show the massing of rebel forces, the counter-attack by Spanish forces, the use of the Vigan church as sanctuary, the final bloody battle of Bantaoay, and the executions by hanging and beheading.

It is said that rich Ilocano businessmen – who were as adversely affected by the revolt as their Spanish masters – commissioned the 24-year-old Villanueva to paint the gory revolt scenes so as to dissuade the Ilocos peasantry from further entertaining thoughts of revolt.

“The 14 paintings were supposed to represent the 14 Stations of the Cross,” said Emma Villanueva, a businesswoman and a direct fifth-generation descendant of the painter. She added that her ancestor Esteban painted not for money, but as a hobby.

The 14 paintings were all but forgotten, Emma said, until a member of the Villanueva clan discovered them in the early 1950’s in one of the family bodegas (warehouses) in Vigan. After a number of transfers, the provincial government had the paintings housed in the Vigan branch of the National Library.

Who owns the paintings?

Emma explained that there is a gray area between three entities – the Villanueva clan, the National Museum, and the Ayala Museum – about who is in control of the paintings. She reiterated her clan’s position that the paintings were clearly owned by the Villanuevas when these were taken away and finally landed at the Burgos Museum.

Emma said her clan is open to the idea of granting public status to the paintings because these are the legacy of the entire Filipino people, but insisted that the Villanueva clan’s property claims be acknowledged first.

Emma expressed concern that the paintings be kept well-maintained for the sake of future generations. She noted that in the past, there were amateurish attempts to retouch the paintings, which modified some details including costumes.

When Nordis staffers visited the Burgos Museum two weeks ago, we did not notice any humidity and temperature controls. In some spots of the paintings, some deterioration is noticeable. Nordis encountered strict rules when we asked permission to take photos of the paintings.

It is to the credit of other history buffs that printed reproductions are currently on exhibit at the Museum of the Filipino People in Manila. Negotiations are also afoot to put all 14 panels on display in the said Manila museum up to mid-December.

related to basi


General Miguel Malvar and the Philippine-American War

The Last Holdout

Few men lead lives with unquestionable conviction and character. And when it comes to the leaders of the revolutionary movement, such a person would definitely be the exception. Bickering and personal rivalries plagued the movement, caused factionalism and disunity, and may have prevented the revolution from reaching its full potential.

One person of such exceptional character was Miguel Malvar. There may have been flaws in his character but none were in the same league as those of the more controversial and celebrated revolutionary leaders.

Malvar was born in 1865 in Santo Tomas, Batangas to Maximo Malvar and Tiburcia Carpio. Maximo was an enterprising businessman who improved his lot from a simple logging operation to owning rice and sugarcane fields just off the slopes of Mount Maquiling. This success enabled his children to acquire an education, an achievement common to those who would eventually lead the revolution. Malvar spent three years in secondary school, married, and started acquiring land. He prospered from the oranges he planted there. In turn, Malvar sent his brother Potenciano to secondary school. Potenciano finished his studies and later became a doctor.

By the mid-1880's, discontent among the Filipinos resulted in organized movements for reform. Batangas was no different from the rest of the Tagalog region. Earlier leaders of the reform movement in Batangas were Felipe Agoncillo, Ananias Diocno, and Ruperto Laurel among others. Agoncillo has been identified as an active member of the Liga founded by Rizal. This point is important because some historians do not believe that the Katipunan existed in Batangas before 1896. It is clear that when the Liga dissolved most of its members reorganized into other societies, many into the secret society of the Katipunan. No undisputed proof exists but it seems unlikely that the reform movement followed a different path in Batangas.

Early discontent

Early Batangas political leaders used their influence to agitate against Spanish authority personified by the friars. The movement spread rapidly because of strong anti-friar sentiment. In Santo Tomas, this action was led by Malvar who had been elected gobernadorcillo in 1890 against the Recollect Fr. Garces. After gaining influence and respect, Malvar made known his opposition to friar control of much of their daily lives. Garces worked intensively to defeat Malvar in subsequent elections. This started a power struggle between the two which often featured the fielding of puppet candidates, bribery, and other irregularities. Throughout the province, anti-friar sentiment grew to strain relations between the native political elite and the colonial power. By the eve of the discovery of the Katipunan in Manila, Batangas was rife with resentment and ready for a revolution.

While Andres Bonifacio was not very successful in Manila and its environs, Emilio Aguinaldo was scoring significant gains in Cavite. So successful was the revolution there that his army made a push across the Batangas border in late September 1896 and occupied Talisay in hopes of spreading the revolution. Intense fighting quickly broke out in the western and northern parts of the province. Civilians were massacred in Nasugbu and this became the rallying point for people to rise up in arms. As a man of political power, Malvar personally put an army together and participated in the battle for Talisay with Aguinaldo's men. This was the beginning of Malvar's military life.

Colorful though they may be, the revolutionaries lost most of the battles they fought. Luckily, the colonial government's priority was to pacify Manila and the suburbs north of it. For a while there seemed to be a chance of keeping the revolution alive. Then on February of 1897, Governor-General Polavieja ordered a multi-pronged attack on the southern provinces, which isolated Cavite from Batangas. This caused the revolutionaries to retreat all the way to Biak-na-Bato. While the more prominent figures of the revolution were embroiled in personal conflicts, Malvar regrouped and linked up with Sebastian Caneo of the Colorum and the bandit Aniceto Oruga to broaden his area of operation. Though not very successful, he was able to consolidate the leadership in Laguna, Tayabas, and Batangas and keep the momentum of the revolution going.

He was opposed to negotiating peace with Spain and he ably showed his willingness to fight on but the Pact of Biak-na-Bato was signed by other less enthusiastic leaders. That officially ended the fight for independence.

Tasked with rounding up his followers, Malvar traveled around the province of Batangas to make sure the terms of the agreement were met and left for Hong Kong as part of the negotiated terms.

A new enemy

Not long after Dewey decimated the Spanish armada, fighting broke out again in May 1898. With the help of the Americans, Aguinaldo returned in mid-May, followed shortly by Malvar. The revolution the Spaniards had left for dead was very much alive. In fact fighting was already taking place in many parts of Batangas when Malvar returned to take charge of an army once again. By late July, much of the province had been liberated and Malvar and his troops turned towards Tayabas. Local governments had already been set up as the first shots were being fired in Manila to mark the beginning of the Philippine-American War. Around this time, Malvar was in the process of setting up a real provincial army. He recruited people who he believed would be loyal to him. In doing so, he inadvertently chose people who would later lead their own armies and not cooperate with each other.

By May 1899, Malvar's Batangas Brigade was ordered to reinforce troops in Muntinglupa to prepare for an assault on American garrisons. The main thrust of the American offensive until then had been concentrated north of Manila making the battles in the southern provinces relatively light. This situation changed when the American command decided to pacify the rest of the Tagalog region. Malvar retreated slowly to Calamba and from there supervised the defense of Batangas. An elaborate trench defense was created around Santo Tomas and Tulo, Laguna. Other towns likewise prepared trench lines. The seaside communities prepared for an amphibious assault which, however, never materialized.

In retrospect, Malvar may have spread his forces too thinly so that when the American assault in January 1900 finally came much of the established defenses were easily overrun. As Malvar's army suffered consecutive defeats, it started dissolving. When the order to conduct guerrilla warfare was given, Malvar had been mainly hiding in the hills around Maquiling and traveling occasionally to check with his field officers. Morale had dropped but Malvar was determined to keep the fight going. This was enough to inject new vigor into his army which he reorganized into zonal columns led by officers with their own areas of responsibility. He imposed taxes on the populace to feed his troops.

He understood that it was essential to maintain favorable relations with the civilians because his army's success depended on their help. At this point, much of the people still supported their general. But as the war dragged on, many of the well-to-do started seeing the benefits of cooperating with their new colonial masters. Collaboration became widespread and support for Malvar started waning. Even if the majority were still for resistance, it was impossible to get needed support. Crops were left unharvested, people were sick from various diseases, work animals were being stolen, and there was too much hardship to endure.

Malvar takes over

Aguinaldo was captured and shortly after, his successor Gen. Mariano Trias also surrendered. The task of running whatever was left of the resistance fell on Malvar. He accepted the task with realistic expectations, saying that although there were others more capable of the job, the rule of succession dictated that he take the job.

One of his first manifestos reversed Aguinaldo's policy of favoring the elite. He described the role of the peasantry in the struggle and how through them it might still be won. So while American-formed civil governments were being established, the resistance movement was still active. Many towns showed two faces: one for the benefit of the Americans, the other to aid their resistance fighters. The result was a significant upsurge in military activity. In December 1901, Malvar who had previously taken only a defensive stance launched a major offensive against several American-held towns in Batangas. Though their gains were short lived, it was proof that the war was far from over.

A month before that offensive, significant changes had taken place in the American command. Gen. Samuel Sumner had been relieved of command of the Third Brigade and replaced by Gen. James Franklin Bell. Convinced of the need to end the war soon, Bell resorted to controversial tactics and strategies. He instituted a "scorched earth" policy. Civilians had to live in hamlets. Men were rounded up routinely for questioning. This marked the most destructive phase of the war. Relentlessly pursuing Malvar and his men who were close to starvation, his strategy worked. Ranks were broken, morale dropped, and surrender of Malvar's forces grew extremely high.

End of revolutionay succession

By April 1902, many of Malvar's former officers had changed sides and had become volunteers for the American force. They exposed his hideaway. Believing that a few more months of fighting would only imperil the masses and surrounded by Americans and their native troops, Malvar with his sick wife and children surrendered on April 13, 1902. By the end of April, most of Malvar's troops had also surrendered and the battle for Batangas was over.

Malvar retired to a quiet farming life and prospered from the land he had fought hard for. He died in October 1911, the last general to surrender to American occupational forces.

Boholano Revolt~paradise philippines

The Boholano Revolution Against Spain

This is an attempt to put together and interpret some references about the longest revolution against the Spaniards in the Philippines. This story, however, is not complete. Some local references about the topic are not accessible to me at this time. Hopefully, we can find time to gather other texts (textual, oral or signs) so a better story can be told for our generation and those yet to come).

Francisco Dagohoy led the longest revolt against the Spaniards in Philippine history. The revolt took the Spaniards 85 years (1744-1829) to quell. Forced labor was one of the causes of the revolt. But what triggered the decision to rise up in arms against the Spanish authorities in Bohol was the refusal of a Jesuit priest to give a Christian burial to Dagohoy.s brother.

Dagohoy was a cabeza de barangay of Inabanga. Upon the order of Father Gaspar Morales, a Jesuit cura of Inabanga, Sagarino went to the mountains to arrest a Boholano renegade. The fugitive, however, resisted arrest and killed Sagarino in a fight before he himself died.

When Dagohoy learned about his brother.s death, he searched for his brother.s body. He found it and brought the remains to Inabanga for a Christian burial. Father Morales, however, did not agree saying the Sagarino died in a duel. Besides, Sagarino did not receive the sacrament of extreme unction. Hence, giving him a Christian burial was contrary to religious practices at that time. What complicated the situation was the order of the priest to expose the rotting corpse for about three days in front of Inabanga Church. It is also possible, however, that since the priest refused to grant the request, Dagohoy decided to place the corpse there to force the priest to change his mind. Dagohoy eventually buried his brother without the benefit of a Catholic burial.

These strings of events led Dagohoy to make a vow to correct the wrong done to his brother. In the process, he stopped paying tribute to the Spaniards and refused to render the required .forced. labor. He also called upon his relatives, friends and the other residents to do the same and fight for their freedom.

The ground was fertile for Dagohoy.s call. Around 3,000 Boholanos rallied to his call and joined him in a revolt against Spanish injustice and tyranny. Together with other leading members of the Tagbilaran, Baclayon and Dauis principalia, Dagohoy proclaimed the .Independence of Bohol. in the mountains of Talibon and Inabanga. The concept of independence, however, might not be applicable at that time. What is most likely is that the revolutionaries stopped submitting themselves to the dictates of the Spanish authorities and decided to move to the mountains where they can live on their own in peace.

Up there in the mountains, the revolutionaries established their headquarters, which they fortified with trenches of big rocks. Just like the way some upland farmers pile up big rocks on top of another in their farms. They also build dwellings for their families and cleared up some of the forest areas so that they can plant crops for their subsistence. Since Dagohoy has experience in leading a community being a cabeza de barangay, it is safe to assume that he set some rules and norms to maintain peace and order in the new community. When the other Boholanos heard about the revolt, they expressed their sympathy by joining the revolutionaries or by supplying them with arms and money.

From time to time, the revolutionaries would raid the costal towns, assault the Spanish garrisons, loot churches and kill Spaniards. In one of these raids, they killed the cura of Jagna, an Italian Jesuit priest, and Father Morales. Dagohoy fulfilled the promise he made over the grave of his brother and continued to lead the revolt until his death. It is unknown when and how he died. It is probable that he died of old age or sickness a little before or after the 1800s. What is certain is that the revolution did not end with his death.

The Spaniards were not happy with the Dagohoy-led revolt. In fact, there were several attempts to suppress it. The historian Gregorio Zaide has this to say:

News of the remarkable success of Dagohoy worried the Spanish authorities in Manila. In 1747 Bishop Juan de Arrechederra, acting Governor-General of the Philippines (1745-1750), dispatched a punitive expedition to Bohol under the command of Don Pedro Lechuga. Commander Lechuga won a few skirmishes but failed to crush the rebellion. In desperation, he sent a commando unit into the mountains to kill or capture Dagohoy, his sister Gracia, and other leaders. The commandos returned empty-handed because they could not penetrate Dagohoy.s fortified stronghold (p. 154)..

The nationalist historian Renato Constantino also narrated Spanish efforts to quell the revolt. He said:

Perhaps the best indication of the importance and the success of this rebellion may be seen in the persistent efforts exerted by both the State and the Church to negotiate with Dagohoy. After the unsuccessful military attempts to suppress the revolt, it was the Church.s turn to make the effort. Bishop Espeleta of Cebu tried to persuade the rebels to give up their resistance by promising to secure a general amnesty, to find remedies for the abuses of government officials, and to assign secular priests instead of Jesuits to the Bohol parishes. The rebels refused the offer..

The revolt continued. By 1770, five years before the waging of the American War for Independence against Great Britain, there were already about 30,000 revolutionaries in Bohol.

It was only in April 1828, three years after the arrival of Governor-General Mariano Ricafort, that the Spaniards sent its strongest expedition to Bohol. This is understandable because Spain experienced problems in its other colonies in the 1800s. For instance, the Spanish American colonies revolted in 1810 until 1826, thus severing the link between Acapulco and Manila. It was, therefore, a hard time for Spain. It was no longer a world superpower as it was in the 16th century. And it could not quell the Dagohoy revolution in Bohol.

Probably to help save its face after its defeats from the forces of Dagohoy and its loss of colonies, Spain decided to put an end to the revolt using Spanish and native (like Cebuanos) troops. According to Zaide:

Fighting with desperate courage, the indomitable Boholanos resisted the enemy, whose heavy artillery pieces caused much havoc to their fortifications and took a terrible toll of human lives. Wearied by the ceaseless combat, weakened by hunger and thirst, and depleted in numerical strength, they made their last stand in the mountain of Boasa under the command of the valiant brothers, Handog and Auag. In June 1829, they fought their last battle and were crushed by Spain.s superior arms. The survivors fled into the forest, where they grimly continued to carry on their hopeless cause (p. 156).

The revolt ended formally on August 31, 1829. Manuel Sanz, commander of the Spanish forces, officially reported that 3,000 Boholanos escaped to other islands, 19,420 surrendered, 395 died in battle, 98 were exiled and around ten thousand revolutionaries were resettled in the areas of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar, Cabulao and Catigbian. These figures all point to the fact that the revolt was widespread in the province, hence, it was not simply a Dagohoy revolt. Dagohoy started it and continued to be a source of inspiration to his comrades even after his death. But it was a Boholano revolution against Spain.

Notes:

  • Some sources claim that the real name of Dagohoy was Francisco Sendrijas and that he is called Dagohoy due to his ability to move like the wind. Literally, the name is a combination of .dagon sa hoyohoy. that means .talisman from the breeze..
  • 2. Constantino claimed that Dagohoy.s brother, Sagarino, was a renegade who had abandoned the Christian religion and that Father Morales ordered a native constable to arrest Sagarino. Sagarino resisted arrest and killed the constable before he himself died.
  • Main References:

    Agoncillo, Teodoro A. History of the Filipino People. GAROTECH Publishing, 1990 (8th Edition).

    Constantino, Renato. The Philippines: A Past Revisited. Tala Publishing Series, 1975.

    Zaide, Gregorio F. Great Filipinos in History: An Epic of Filipino Greatness in War and Peace. Verde Bookstore, 1970.

    Zaide, Gregorio. Dagohoy: Champion of Philippine Freedom. Manila: Enriquez, Alduan and Co., 1941.


    more...








    from:http://www.ualberta.ca/~vmitchel/alan-article.html

    Boholano Revolt~paradise philippines

    The Boholano Revolution Against Spain

    (By way of introduction: This is an attempt to put together and interpret some references about the longest revolution against the Spaniards in the Philippines. This story, however, is not complete. Some local references about the topic are not accessible to me at this time. Hopefully, we can find time to gather other texts (textual, oral or signs) so a better story can be told for our generation and those yet to come).

    Francisco Dagohoy led the longest revolt against the Spaniards in Philippine history. The revolt took the Spaniards 85 years (1744-1829) to quell. Forced labor was one of the causes of the revolt. But what triggered the decision to rise up in arms against the Spanish authorities in Bohol was the refusal of a Jesuit priest to give a Christian burial to Dagohoy.s brother.

    Dagohoy was a cabeza de barangay of Inabanga. Upon the order of Father Gaspar Morales, a Jesuit cura of Inabanga, Sagarino went to the mountains to arrest a Boholano renegade. The fugitive, however, resisted arrest and killed Sagarino in a fight before he himself died.

    When Dagohoy learned about his brother.s death, he searched for his brother.s body. He found it and brought the remains to Inabanga for a Christian burial. Father Morales, however, did not agree saying the Sagarino died in a duel. Besides, Sagarino did not receive the sacrament of extreme unction. Hence, giving him a Christian burial was contrary to religious practices at that time. What complicated the situation was the order of the priest to expose the rotting corpse for about three days in front of Inabanga Church. It is also possible, however, that since the priest refused to grant the request, Dagohoy decided to place the corpse there to force the priest to change his mind. Dagohoy eventually buried his brother without the benefit of a Catholic burial.

    These strings of events led Dagohoy to make a vow to correct the wrong done to his brother. In the process, he stopped paying tribute to the Spaniards and refused to render the required .forced. labor. He also called upon his relatives, friends and the other residents to do the same and fight for their freedom.

    The ground was fertile for Dagohoy.s call. Around 3,000 Boholanos rallied to his call and joined him in a revolt against Spanish injustice and tyranny. Together with other leading members of the Tagbilaran, Baclayon and Dauis principalia, Dagohoy proclaimed the .Independence of Bohol. in the mountains of Talibon and Inabanga. The concept of independence, however, might not be applicable at that time. What is most likely is that the revolutionaries stopped submitting themselves to the dictates of the Spanish authorities and decided to move to the mountains where they can live on their own in peace.

    Up there in the mountains, the revolutionaries established their headquarters, which they fortified with trenches of big rocks. Just like the way some upland farmers pile up big rocks on top of another in their farms. They also build dwellings for their families and cleared up some of the forest areas so that they can plant crops for their subsistence. Since Dagohoy has experience in leading a community being a cabeza de barangay, it is safe to assume that he set some rules and norms to maintain peace and order in the new community. When the other Boholanos heard about the revolt, they expressed their sympathy by joining the revolutionaries or by supplying them with arms and money.

    From time to time, the revolutionaries would raid the costal towns, assault the Spanish garrisons, loot churches and kill Spaniards. In one of these raids, they killed the cura of Jagna, an Italian Jesuit priest, and Father Morales. Dagohoy fulfilled the promise he made over the grave of his brother and continued to lead the revolt until his death. It is unknown when and how he died. It is probable that he died of old age or sickness a little before or after the 1800s. What is certain is that the revolution did not end with his death.

    The Spaniards were not happy with the Dagohoy-led revolt. In fact, there were several attempts to suppress it. The historian Gregorio Zaide has this to say:

    News of the remarkable success of Dagohoy worried the Spanish authorities in Manila. In 1747 Bishop Juan de Arrechederra, acting Governor-General of the Philippines (1745-1750), dispatched a punitive expedition to Bohol under the command of Don Pedro Lechuga. Commander Lechuga won a few skirmishes but failed to crush the rebellion. In desperation, he sent a commando unit into the mountains to kill or capture Dagohoy, his sister Gracia, and other leaders. The commandos returned empty-handed because they could not penetrate Dagohoy.s fortified stronghold (p. 154)..

    The nationalist historian Renato Constantino also narrated Spanish efforts to quell the revolt. He said:

    Perhaps the best indication of the importance and the success of this rebellion may be seen in the persistent efforts exerted by both the State and the Church to negotiate with Dagohoy. After the unsuccessful military attempts to suppress the revolt, it was the Church.s turn to make the effort. Bishop Espeleta of Cebu tried to persuade the rebels to give up their resistance by promising to secure a general amnesty, to find remedies for the abuses of government officials, and to assign secular priests instead of Jesuits to the Bohol parishes. The rebels refused the offer..

    The revolt continued. By 1770, five years before the waging of the American War for Independence against Great Britain, there were already about 30,000 revolutionaries in Bohol.

    It was only in April 1828, three years after the arrival of Governor-General Mariano Ricafort, that the Spaniards sent its strongest expedition to Bohol. This is understandable because Spain experienced problems in its other colonies in the 1800s. For instance, the Spanish American colonies revolted in 1810 until 1826, thus severing the link between Acapulco and Manila. It was, therefore, a hard time for Spain. It was no longer a world superpower as it was in the 16th century. And it could not quell the Dagohoy revolution in Bohol.

    Probably to help save its face after its defeats from the forces of Dagohoy and its loss of colonies, Spain decided to put an end to the revolt using Spanish and native (like Cebuanos) troops. According to Zaide:

    Fighting with desperate courage, the indomitable Boholanos resisted the enemy, whose heavy artillery pieces caused much havoc to their fortifications and took a terrible toll of human lives. Wearied by the ceaseless combat, weakened by hunger and thirst, and depleted in numerical strength, they made their last stand in the mountain of Boasa under the command of the valiant brothers, Handog and Auag. In June 1829, they fought their last battle and were crushed by Spain.s superior arms. The survivors fled into the forest, where they grimly continued to carry on their hopeless cause (p. 156).

    The revolt ended formally on August 31, 1829. Manuel Sanz, commander of the Spanish forces, officially reported that 3,000 Boholanos escaped to other islands, 19,420 surrendered, 395 died in battle, 98 were exiled and around ten thousand revolutionaries were resettled in the areas of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar, Cabulao and Catigbian. These figures all point to the fact that the revolt was widespread in the province, hence, it was not simply a Dagohoy revolt. Dagohoy started it and continued to be a source of inspiration to his comrades even after his death. But it was a Boholano revolution against Spain.

    Notes:

  • Some sources claim that the real name of Dagohoy was Francisco Sendrijas and that he is called Dagohoy due to his ability to move like the wind. Literally, the name is a combination of .dagon sa hoyohoy. that means .talisman from the breeze..
  • 2. Constantino claimed that Dagohoy.s brother, Sagarino, was a renegade who had abandoned the Christian religion and that Father Morales ordered a native constable to arrest Sagarino. Sagarino resisted arrest and killed the constable before he himself died.
  • Main References:

    Agoncillo, Teodoro A. History of the Filipino People. GAROTECH Publishing, 1990 (8th Edition).

    Constantino, Renato. The Philippines: A Past Revisited. Tala Publishing Series, 1975.

    Zaide, Gregorio F. Great Filipinos in History: An Epic of Filipino Greatness in War and Peace. Verde Bookstore, 1970.

    Zaide, Gregorio. Dagohoy: Champion of Philippine Freedom. Manila: Enriquez, Alduan and Co., 1941.

    leon kilat cebu's revolt part 2 ~paradise philippines

    dito sa part 2 ay aatake na sila kasama ang mga loyal katipuneros at pag natalo sila walang susuko kailangan nilang barilin ang kanilang ulo pra inde sumiwat ang sikretong grupo"katipunan"


    BEFORE Leon Kilat's arrival in Cebu, the Cebuanos were already organized under the following structure: Candido Padilla, chief; Teofisto Cavan, secretary; Alejandro Climaco, treasurer; and Atilano Lopez, Frisco Abriyo, Luis Flores, Eugenio Gines, Florencio Gonzales, Lucio Herrera, Jacinto Pacaña, Francisco Llamas, Arsenio Cabreros, Justo Cabajar and P. Toribio Padilla as members.

    Part of the old Magallanes es St.They would often meet in secret places, sometimes in the house of Cabeza Llamas or the Chinese Lucio Herrera. Or at Jacinto Pacaña's place or at the house of Capitan Candido Padilla. Andres Abellana would relate that the house of Paulino Solon in Sambag (where the Don Vicente Sotto Memorial Hospital is now located) was used often because it was secluded and had plenty of trees. Solon (also known as Paulino Bungi) had a huge front yard where a tamarind tree stood and benches made of wood or split bamboo.

    No exact date is given when Leon Kilat arrived for his final mission in Cebu. Some sources say he arrived in Mid-February or late March of 1898. But according to Andres Abellana in 1928, Kilat visited him sometime in December 1897. Afterwards, he was introduced to other cabecillas and leaders of the local chapter.

    But before him, Kilat had already met Mariano Hernandez, one the organizers of the katipunan. Kilat had hesitations about Abellana being a former capitan who might report him to the authorities. Abellana in turn had his own apprehensions about Kilat whom he suspected of being a spy who was just fishing for information.

    Thus, Abellana told him he did not want the Spanish regime to fall. Still Abellana would introduce him to other ring leaders like Candido Padilla and Florencio Gonzales who, like Abellana, refused to trust him.

    "Nagkinidhatay lang ug mibalidad," recalled Abellana.

    Finally, they brought him to Mariano Hernandez who showed them Aguinaldo's letter introducing Leon Kilat. The letter erased all their doubts, and they were happy that the man they had waited for was here at last.

    In the meantime, the propaganda materials prepared and compiled by Domingo and Plata reached Cebu through Anastacio Oclarino and Gavino Gabucayan in January 1898. The latter had instructions to organize the katipunan in the Visayas and Mindanao and prepare the plan of establishing a dictatorial government. But this would not materialize due to the arrest and execution of Cavan and Gonzales.

    In the instruction of Plata and Domingo, the persons appointed to lead this government were: Florencio Gonzales, as general in chief; Luis Flores, general for war plans; Jacinto Pacaña, supplier of weapons; Lucio Herrera, treasurer of war; Solomon Manalili, auditor; Candido Padilla, captain of the army; Fortunato Gonzales, lt. col. of the army and Bonifacio Arenas, division colonel. Mariano Hernandez was the supreme military authority who appointed the members of the macheteros (bolomen) against the cazadores, the bodyguards of Gen. Montero.

    Aguinaldo's letter must have superceded the order of Domingo and Plata because it was Leon Kilat who had now assumed the leadership of the katipunan. He met with Luis Flores, Florencio Gonzales, Alejandro Antequia and Crisologo Franco Bermejo in whose presence he organized barangay no. 1 with Flores as chieftain in Sawang, Cebu City.

    The old San Nicolas churchIn the town of San Nicolas, he made contact with Teopisto Cavan in his house, then requested him to fetch Gregorio Padilla. In a meeting with the latter, Leon Kilat asked the latter not to divulge the plan of the revolt if he valued his own life. Then he organized barangay no. 2 with Padilla as chief of San Nicolas.

    Leon himself assumed command of the katipunan army in the same locality, ordering every person to produce bladed weapons following certain measurements and telling each one to remember him only as Leon Kilat.

    The katipunan was growing fast. While Leon Kilat was in Cebu, many young men were drawn to the organization. In the workplaces where abaca was being processed and in commericial houses, very few were not members of the katipunan. The young men of San Nicolas and the city Cebu were one in their aspirations for the motherland. In practically all places, there were groups headed by their own jefes, ready to fight.

    Then an important meeting took place on March 11, 1898 at the sugar cane field of Jacinto Pacaña where it was decided to start the revolt on April 8 (Good Friday).The suggestion was brought up by Catalino Fernandez who argued that the all the Spaniards would be joining the procession on Good Friday and their guns would be facing down and without cartridges. They could take all the leaders in one blow with the least resistance.

    Present in that meeting were the leaders of the katipunan in Cebu: Leon Kilat, Candido Padilla, Luis Flores, Eugenio Gines, Florencio Cavan, Jacinto Pacaña, Atilano Lopez, Francisco Llamas, Alejandro Climaco, Justo Cabajar, Alejo Miñoza, Hipolito Labra, Placido Datan, Alipio Barrera, Alejandro Villona, Nicanor Avila and others. They resolved to keep their agreements in secret that not even their wives, parents or brothers and sisters would be told about their fateful decisions that day.

    They also conspired with the members of the voluntarios leales (royal volunteers) that in case of a shooting match with katipuneros, they would fire over their heads. Or they would aim their guns at the Spaniards should the latter refuse to surrender. Everybody in the meeting agreed.

    That same March 11 meeting decided to send three leaders to Manila for military training. Francisco Llamas was told to leave immediately, bringing money and bladed weapons with him. Nicolas Godines and Eugenio Gines would follow later. This they did to avoid detection by Spanish authorities who were getting more and more suspicious of people going on boat trips to Manila.

    But these activities could not go on without being detected by the Spanish authorities. By the middle of March 1898, they began to notice certain conditions in the city and San Nicolas. Rumors floated about the existence of a secret society. Many of the katipuneros, especially those who frequented Manila, were placed under surveillance.

    by http://www.geocities.com/lkilat/page2.html

    leon kilat cebu's revolt~paradise philippines

    sa mga mag babasa po nito ay sana maramdaman nyu sa sarili nyu na my mga di kilalang mga bayani na nag sakripisyu para sa kanilang mga anak at mga apo siguro" ikaw ang isa sa mga tinutukoy ko"


    FRANCISCO Llamas. Nicolas Godines. Eugenio Gines. Luis Flores. Luis Abellar. Candido Padilla. Jacinto Pacaña. Andres Abellana. Lucio Herrera. Mariano Hernandez. Nicomedes Machacon. Alejo Miñoza. Ambrocio Peña. Hilario, Felix and Potenciano Aliño. Estanislao Larrua. Pascasio Dabasol. Wenceslao Capala. Daniel Cañedo. Silvestre and Simeon Cañedo. Regino, Nicanor and Jaime Enriquez. Pantaleon Villegas (aka Leon Kilat). Bonifacio Aranas. Juan Climaco. Justo Cabajar. Florencio Gonzales. Arcadio Maxilom.

    A group of unidentified revolutionariesSounds familiar? They should be. After all, many Cebuanos today bear the same family names, being their descendants. Streets are named after many of their ancestors. They - and several hundreds of others who participated in the Cebuanos' struggle against 400 years of Spanish colonial rule - are your local heroes.





    A hundred years ago, they put their lives and limb at stake so that their children and great grandchildren could be free from tyranny. Many of them died to make freedom and independence a reality at a time when only fools dared to dream dreams.

    Beginnings

    The beginings of the revolutionary movement in Cebu is still not very clear. There are reports that Tagalog katipuneros had a strong influence in shaping the events leading to the uprising which finally drove out the Spaniards in December 1898.

    Some local historians credit Anastacio Oclarino for the formation of the local chapter of the katipunan. He was from Sta. Cruz, Laguna and worked in the ships "Mariposa" and "Bohol". That was where Gil Domingo and Hermogenes Plata recruited him into the movement and later ordered him in the later part of 1897 to form a chapter in Cebu.

    Domingo and Plata were identified with the faction of the Bonifacio brothers which opted to continue the revolution after Aguinaldo's compromise agreement at Biak-na-bato.

    The order was given despite the truce between the Filipino revolutionaries under Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo and the Spanish authorities. Those oppposed to Aguinaldo's compromise disseminated propaganda materials that urged Filipinos to continue the fight. Some of these materials were brought by Oclarino to Cebu in Jan. 1898. Oclarino was also helped by another Tagalog Gabino Gabucayan.

    In Cebu, Florencio Gonzales met Oclarino who recruited him to the KKK. Gonzales was interested. Since he was going to Manila to settle a case being a procurador (a helper of a lawyer), he decided to meet Gil Domingo and Hermogenes Plata. The two appointed Gonzales to spearhead the katipunan in Cebu, with Oclarino as courier.

    But in the accounts of Gregorio Abellana, a participant of the revolution, the first chapter of the katipunan was formed in Cebu even before Oclarino came. This was organized by natives of San Nicolas in June 19, 1897. Their leaders were Gavino Padilla, Teofisto Cavan and Frisco Abriyo.

    The group sent a letter to Gen. Gil Domingo who replied that a man known in the locality to be an expert in firearms will be sent to Cebu. In the meantime, they started recruiting other members to the katipunan.

    Like their counterparts in Luzon, the local katipunan chapter used the cell system of organization. Each head of the cell known as "cabecilla" would recruit their own members who would not know members of the other cells. By mid February 1898, the cabecillas recruited were: Mariano Hernandez, an operator of Smith Bell and Co., Luis Abellar, Nicomedes Machacon, Alejo Miñoza and Ambrocio Peña.

    Mariano Hernandez was later appointed colonel by Domingo and Plata upon the recommendation of Oclarino.

    Very soon, the katipunan was making inroads to Cebu's middle class. Francisco Llamas, Nicolas Godines, Eugenio Gines and Luis Flores were some of its early members.

    Vendors in Taboan at the turn of the 20th centuryLeading members of the San Nicolas community likewise began to feel the pulse of the revolution throbbing. Prominent among the early recruits were Luis Abellar, a former teniente; Candido Padilla, former capitan and currently juez de paz; ex-capitan Jacinto Pacaña; ex-capitan Andres Abellana; Lucio Herrera, a wealthy Chinese; and Spanish mestizo lawyer Isidro Guibelondo of Mabolo.

    But the Cebu chapter seemed to lack a solid leadership. It had to have an outsider to provide the organization an adequate leadership.

    Leon Kilat

    The man who was expected by the locals was Pantaleon Villegas or more popularly known as "Leon Kilat."

    Villegas was born on July 27, 1873, in Bacong, Negros Oriental, to Don Policarpio Villegas and Doña Ursula Soldi. His grandfather was Don Pedro Villegas, a native of Spain, and Dorotea, a daughter of a capitan of Bacong.

    An early picture of Leon KilatHis trip to Cebu in 1897 was not his first because he was here two years earlier working in Botica Antigua . This was located in the corner of Calle del Palacio and Calle Legaspi (Burgos and Legaspi). It was a well known drug store frequented by many Cebuanos.

    With him were Ciriaco Murillo and Eulogio Duque who told the writer Manuel Enriquez de la Calzada that Pantaleon actually used the name "Eulogio", instead of Pantaleon. Because there were two Eulogios working in the drugstore, the German owner had to call him instead "Leon". Why he used the name "Eulogio" was not known.

    Villegas did not stay long there. He transferred to a bakery in Pahina. From there he moved on to a circus owned by Tagalogs on their way to Manila. The circus happened to be owned by a katipunero. It was there that he was recruited into the secret council of the KKK which also taught the occult sciences, magic, and other esoteric practices.

    It was possible that he was also brought to Cavite, Malabon, Calamba, Pasig and Malolos which were centers of the revolutionary movement in Luzon. He was known for his bravery and daring, his firm defense of his comrades and his stand on issues.

    He was likewise known to follow orders and suggestions of superiors in the movement. Comrades in Luzon were always surprised at his courage to be ahead of the group whenever there was an encounter. In San Roque, Cavite. In Binondo. In Malolos. Very few demonstrated such courage, they noted.

    All these were related by Eulogio Duque. It was in his house in front of the Roas in General Serrano street (later called Martires, now M.J. Cuenco Ave.) where Villegas lived when he arrived from Manila. From here he carried his mission in Cebu for the katipunan.

    The Spanish authorities later visited Duque in that house to arrest him, suspecting that he was Pantaleon Villegas. But he told them that his name was Teodorico - thus, the nickname "Dikoy" - and his family name was Duque, not Villegas. Fortunately, the botica owner vouched for him. Thus, he lived to tell his story.

    Although Plata and Domingo had already an appointment for Gonzales to lead the revolt in Cebu, that order must have been supplanted by a new one. When Villegas arrived here, he was able to show a letter from the katipunan leaders endorsing his appointment.

    Gavino Gabucayan was supposed to have been sent here, but the Visayans in Luzon would not permit him to go because he was also needed there. He was credible and had leadership capabilities. They were in a quandary. But after learning that Villegas was from the Visayas, they lost no time in sending him to Cebu. That had to be done in utmost secrecy because by now the Spaniards had become extremely suspicious of persons coming from Manila.

    reference: geocities.com/lkilat/page1.html

    Revolutionary War in the Ilocos~paradise philippines

    Before the Spaniards came, the northwestern part of Luzon was known as Samtoy. It became one big province named Ilocos under Spanish rule until it was split into Ilocos Sur and Ilocos Norte by a royal decree in 1818. Abra and Benguet were carved out of Ilocos Sur to form independent provinces in 1846. La Union was later formed by merging the southern part of Ilocos Sur and the northeast portion of Pangasinan in 1854.

    The Ilocos is a long, narrow strip of land-- a rugged region that nestles between the South China Sea on the west and the great Cordillera ranges on the east. Its scenery combines the beauty of the mountain and the sea. The narrowness of the strip also means that natural resources are limited and this has had a tremendous effect on the character of the Ilocano. He is hardworking and frugal and is probably more adaptable to more situations than one from the other Filipino groups.

    Land of revolts
    During the Spanish regime, a number of armed protests, or alzamientos, took place in the Ilocos. The first recorded rebellion occurred in 1589 at Dingras, Ilocos Norte when its inhabitants killed six tribute collectors from Vigan. The Ilocos Revolt to protest forced labor in 1661 was next. Then came the Great Rebellion of 1762 led by Diego Silang, later by his wife, Gabriela. Tribute collection, forced labor, and various monopolies imposed on native industries triggered this revolt. The tobacco monopoly precipitated another uprising in Laoag in 1788. In 1807, the Basi Revolt led by Pedro Ambaristo broke out to protest the wine monopoly.

    The Ilocanos, uncharacteristically, were left behind when Andres Bonifacio tore his cedula in the now famous "Cry of Balintawak" that signaled the start of armed struggle against Spanish authority. But in 1898, two Ilocano clans, the Abayas and the Guirnaldas, organized a Katipunan chapter in Candon. Despite its secrecy, the Candon Katipunan was uncovered on the night of March 24, 1898. Isabelo Abaya had no choice but to strike prematurely. His forces took control of the town and in the morning of March 25 announced the formation of the Republic of Candon. Fernando Guirnalda assumed authority and proclaimed martial law. Three days later, Spanish shock troops landed and easily retook the town. They executed all leaders of the takeover with the exception of the Guirnalda brothers and Isabelo Abaya who had escaped to the mountains.

    Tinio of the Ilocos
    Gen. Manuel Tinio Gen. Manuel Tinio, not Gregorio del Pilar as commonly believed, was the youngest general during the Revolution. He was born in Aliaga, Nueva Ecija on June 17, 1877. When Aguinaldo put up a republic at Biak-na-Bato, Tinio was appointed a brigadier-general in the Revolutionary Army at which time del Pilar (born 1875) was still a lieutenant-colonel. Tinio accompanied Aguinaldo to exile in Hong Kong in 1897.

    The Americans fetched Aguinaldo from Hong Kong to restart the revolution against Spaniards. Gen. Manuel Tinio was assigned the task of destroying the Spanish forces in Ilocos. He proceeded to Dagupan where he found his brother Maj. Casimiro Tinio and his troops cooperating with Gen. Francisco Makabulos in the siege of the town. With the situation under control, Makabulos allowed Casimiro and some of his officers to be incorporated into the Ilocos Expeditionary Forces.

    Gen. Tinio's vanguard marched to San Fernando and found the town besieged by revolutionaries from Zambales under "General" Mauro Ortiz. In a combined effort, Tinio and Ortiz finally forced the surrender of the Spaniards. Tinio resumed his march to the north and helped to liberate the towns of Balaoan, Bangar, and Tagudin. He proceeded to Candon where he met Isabelo Abaya, who had just liberated the town. Abaya was commissioned by Tinio as Captain of Infantry in the Tinio Brigade. Tinio and his force went farther north and entered the city of Vigan on August 13. He found the city already under control by Blas Villamor and Estanislao Reyes.

    The Ilocano forces grew to a full brigade of more than 3,000 fully-equipped and combat-ready troops. This regional army was formally integrated as an armed unit of the republic on the occasion of Gen. Tinio's appointment as military governor of the Ilocos provinces and commanding general of all Filipino forces in Northern Luzon.

    Phil-Am War in the Ilocos
    Gregorio Aglipay, a Catholic priest at that time, had gone to join the Aguinaldo government's withdrawal and personally accompanied him to Ilocano territory after the death of Ilocano patriot Gen. Antonio Luna at the hands of Aguinaldo's guards.

    Aguinaldo transferred his capital to Bayambang and summoned Gen. Tinio to help Gen. del Pilar fortify Lingayen. Americans under Gen. Lloyd Wheaton landed at San Fabian. A battle ensued which resulted in heavy casualties among the Filipinos. Sensing his precarious position, Aguinaldo and his generals agreed to disband the regular army and resort to guerilla warfare. They transfered the seat of their government to the mountains of Northern Luzon. He left Bayambang and eventually reached Pozorubio. The men of the Tinio Brigade checked the enemy in preestablished positions to allow Aguinaldo's party to leave Pozorubio.

    In La Union, Gen. Tinio and his men protected the retreat of Aguinaldo. They fought admirably in Rosario, Sto. Tomas , and Aringay. After those battles, Tinio withdrew his forces to Tagudin. The Americans under Gen. Samuel B.Young, meanwhile, reached Namacpacan (now Luna) just 18 km. south of Tagudin. Young waited for three days before advancing. This delay gave the Aguinaldo's retreating party enough time to reach Candon.

    From Candon, Aguinaldo decided to move east to the mountains in the interior. Fr. Aglipay and Col. Quesada were ordered to proceed north. Gen. Tinio, meanwhile, had withdrawn his forces to San Quintin, Abra. He ordered a night raid on the American garrison in Vigan. The attackers found the Americans waiting for them in a most advantageous position. Heavy casualties were reported on both sides. The Americans successfully defended their garrison, however.

    Gen. Young ordered a general assault upon Tangadan Pass in the afternoon of the same day of the Vigan attack. The Americans waited for the dark of night to cover the movement of their troops. They were able to climb the adjacent hill without being noticed. Realizing that their position had now become indefensible, the Filipinos withdrew, avoiding another tragedy that would have duplicated Tirad Pass.

    The Americans moved on to San Quintin, then to Pidigan, and finally occupied Bangued in pursuit of the enemy. But Gen. Tinio had already fled to Ilocos Norte accompanied by his staff. The Americans found his whereabouts and followed Tinio to Solsona. They were close on his heels when they reached the rancheria of Maan-anting where they finally lost track of him. Cols. Howze and Hare carried on to Cabugaoan but Tinio could not be found as he had secretly made it back to Banna.

    Guerilla warfare
    While the Americans were running after Tinio in Ilocos Norte, many officers of the Tinio Brigade were busy organizing guerilla bands. The initiators of guerilla fighting in Ilocos were Capt. Francisco Celedonio, Capt. Estanislao Reyes, Capt. Gregorio Pauil , and Capt. Pioquinto Elvinia.

    On Jan. 14, 1900, the only artillery duel of the war was fought in Mount Bimmuaya, a summit 1,000 meters above the Cabugao River northeast of Lapog (now San Juan, Ilocos Sur). It is a place with an unobstructed view of the coastal plain from Vigan to Laoag. The American with their machineguns won mainly because their locations were concealed by their use of smokeless gunpowder so that Filipino aim was wide off the mark. Many believe that Tinio, Reyes, and Celedonio were present at this encounter but got away unscathed.

    Juan Villamor was in command of another guerilla organization. His forces were made up of three rifle companies from Abra and southern Ilocos Sur under Capt. Isabelo Abaya. These Abra-Candon guerillas were credited with several victories over the American forces. A strong force was sent against Villamor while he was camped at Pilar. Villamor ambushed the Americans one night inflicting heavy casualties. The same thing happened again in the Battle of Cosocos. Villamor trapped the Americans who could only retreat while suffering considerable losses in men and equipment.

    According to an American report, Capt. Isabelo Abaya and two others were killed when they attacked a detachment of 30 men of the 33rd Infantry led by Lt. McCleland who were on their way to Guling, a mountain town.

    Fr. Aglipay was one of the most colorful Ilocano guerillas but did not operate under Tinio's command. He never held a military commission but quickly became a legend by galloping into battle on a large American horse. Despite his independent operations, he presumably had the cooperation of both Villamors when he ambushed a pack train of medical supplies three miles from Tayum. It is interesting to note that Aglipay's own followers quickly earned a reputation for throwing themselves into battle with the suicidal abandon of religious fanatics. During three days in April 1900, 333 of them died in action, mostly in hand-to-hand combat in the streets of Laoag and Batac.

    End of the struggle
    As early as January 1901, the end of the resistance in Ilocandia was beginning to be apparent. The following month, 20,000 men bowed to American sovereignty in the Ilocano provinces. By then, a good number of minor leaders had either been killed or captured while the rest, demoralized, voluntarily gave themselves up.

    One by one, the principal leaders came to submission either through mediation or through force. In March 10, Maj. Reyes surrendered at San Vicente. With him were several other officers including Capt. Galicano Calvo. Next to fall was Maj. Francisco Celedonio. Then on April 15, Col. Gutierrez was brought as a prisoner to Santa Cruz. With his capture, resistance in La Union and southern Ilocos Sur died for good.

    On the 26th of April, Fr. Aglipay gave up. But it was not until May 25 that the last of the Aglipay men were finally brought to submission in Laoag. On April 29, Blas and Villamor surrendered their forces at Bangued. Then on May 1, 1901. Gen. Tinio formally surrendered his entire command to Gen. Bell at Sinait. Included in his surrender were Gen. Benito Natividad, Col. Joaquin Alejandrino, and 25 other officers with 350 riflemen.

    The last word on the historical and political significance of the Ilocano phase of the Philippine struggle for independence came from no less than the American commander himself, Gen. Arthur MacArthur, who characterized the war in the Ilocos as the "most troublesome and perplexing military problem in all Luzon."


    more in...




    Further reading:

    1. Ochosa, Orlino A. The Tinio Brigade: Anti-American resistance in the Ilocos provinces, 1899-1901. Quezon City, 1989.
    2. Scott, William Henry. Ilocano responses to American aggression 1900-1901. Quezon City, 1986.

    Fe Zamora writes “Magdalo cooks up another coup: A soldier’s cookbook”

    In Inquirer :
    Fe Zamora writes “Magdalo cooks up another coup: A soldier’s cookbook”

    Sinabi ng mga praning na opisyal ni Gloria Arroyo na nagre-recruit daw ang mga miyembro ng Magdalo sa Bicol.

    Sabi ni Interior Secretary Ronaldo Puno, handa raw sila kung ano man ang niluluto ng Magdalo.

    Nakakatawa, ano?

    Paano naman magre-recruit ang mga Magdalo ay nakakulong ang mga lider noon. Hanggang ngayon nga hindi maka-upo si Sen. Antonio Trillanes IV sa Senado dahil binabale wala ng korte ang kagustuhan ng taumbayan na ipinahiwatig sa pamamagitan ng 11 milyon na bumuto kay Trillanes.

    Katulad rin ng suspetsa nina AFP Chief Hermogenes Esperon na ugnayan ni Sen. Panfilo “Ping” Lacson at ang mga nakakulong na mga opisyal ng Marines at Scout Rangers sa Camp Capinpin sa Tanay.

    Sabi nga ni Lacson, “kung ako ang magre-recruit (para sa kudeta), bakit naman ang mga naka-kulong ang aking kausapin?” Common sense lang, di ba?

    Kung may niluluto man si Trillanes, yan ay “Calamares”. Totoong ulam na calamares.

    Ito ay makikita sa bagong labas na librong, “Pulutan – from the Soldiers’ Kitchen” na gawa ng dalawang Magdalo officers – sina Ensigns Elmer D. Cruz at Emerson R. Rosales. Kami ng aking kaibigang si Yvonne Chua ang nag-edit.

    Isang daang recipes ng pulutan ang laman ng libro. Maliban sa sarili nilang mga recipes, may kontribusyon ang kapwa nilang mga nakakulong na opisyal.

    May mga mai-ikling kwento kung paano nila nabuo ang mga recipe at ang isa ay tungkol sa “Calamares a la Trillanes”.

    Sinabi ni Emerson, sa isang hearing sa Camp Aguinaldo (sa Fort San Felipe sa Cavite nakakulong sina Elmer at Emerson samantalang si Sonny Trillanes ay sa Fort Bonifacio), nag-usap sila ni Trillanes kung ano ang kanilang gagawin kapag sila ay makalaya.

    Nangako sila sa bawat isa na mag- “gimik” or food trip. Sabi ni Trillanes, “Kahit saan basta may seafood!” Hiningi ni Emerson ang kanyang favorite pulutan at binigay niya ang recipe ng pritong pusit.

    Nakakatuwa ang mga recipes at ang mga title. Meron silang “Kapalmuks”. Balat ng baka yun. Dapat kay Gloria Arroyo yun at ang kanyang mga alagad. Mayroon din “Kiss my Chicken Ass” . Bagay sa mga sipsip.

    Opisyal sa Philippine Navy sina Elmer at Emerson. Kaya nakapag-ikot sila sa bansa. Ang kanilang mga recipes ay galing sa lahat na parte ng Pilipinas.

    Mabibili ang “Pulutan – from the Soldiers’ Kitchen” sa International Book Fair sa World Trade Center sa booth ng Anvil Publishing, ang publisher nitong libro. P125 bawat kopya ngunit may 20 percent na discount. Hanggang ngayong araw lang ang Book Fair.

    Pagkatapos ng Book Fair, mabibili ang “Pulutan” sa National Book Store.

    Impt. note: We've purged the old User database during the last WordPress upgrade. You need to register again. Sorry for the inconvenience.

    Bells of Balanggiga~paradise philippines

    At Warren Air Force base outside Cheyenne, in the USA, there are two bells. The bells were taken as war booty from the church in Balanggiga, in Samar, in the Philippine Islands by US forces in retaliation for an uprising that took place there on this day, 28 September 1901, during the Philippine-American war.

    There are, differing accounts of what actually took place. US historians, mainly in the person of one Joseph L. Schott, give a colourful account of Filipino mothers smuggling machetes about the village in coffins, small boys giving the signal to attack the defenceless American soldiers whilst they ate breakfast and American soldiers being mercilessly wiped out by hordes of vicious screaming Filipino madmen, armed to the teeth with bolo knives, picks and shovels - a massacre in other words. Others have questioned this view and suggested instead that the uprising was simply an ongoing part of the, largely guerilla, Filipino attempt at achieving liberation and Statehood and some have stated the view that the townspeople of Balanggiga rose up out of fear under the US occupation of their town.
    If you were to ask yourself what you would do under similar circumstances you might, I suspect, be able to guess at the truth.

    What seems to be nearest to the truth is that Company C of the US 9th Infantry were occupying the town at the time and Valeriano Abanador, the police chief, initiated the attack by assaulting Private Adolph Gamlin, who was on guard. Some undetermined time after this, a bell in the church tower was rung - which may or may not have been a signal for the other townsfolk to join battle.

    Abanador grabbed Gamlin's rifle and as he did so, two other men killed the guards outside the convent and municipal hall. Other townspeople, armed with machetes, picks and shovels, (against the infantry's rifles) collapsed the US army's Sibley tents that were pitched in front of the municipal hall, entered the hall and made their way to the second floor. At the same time, other men in the church broke through into the convent through a connecting corridor and attacked and killed the officers who were billeted there. At the same time, an attack on the mess tent and the two barracks got underway.
    This is where the plan came unstuck. With their meagre forces split into three, the townspeople had too few attackers to ensure success.

    Some of the US soldiers who had been penned up in the barracks, were able to retake the municipal hall, arm themselves and fight back. At about the same time, Adolph Gamlin recovered consciousness, found a rifle and caused considerable casualties among the people outside the municipal hall.

    Faced with immensely superior firepower (i.e. guns) and a rapidly degrading attack, Abanador ordered a retreat. The 9th Infantry survivors, being in insufficient numbers to hold the town, escaped by sea, after which the townspeople returned to bury their dead, then abandoned the town.

    36 US soldiers were killed during the attack (including all of the commissioned officers). 26 US infantry men survived although only 4 were not wounded. On the townspeoples' side, there were 28 deaths and 22 were wounded.

    Public demand in the U.S. for retaliation became a major issue, so President Theodore Roosevelt ordered the pacification of Samar. In six months, General 'Jake' Smith transformed Balanggiga into a 'howling wilderness.' He ordered his men to kill anybody capable of carrying arms, including ten-year-old boys. Smith particularly ordered Major Littleton Waller to punish the people of Samar for the deaths of the American troops. His exact orders were: "I want no prisoners. I wish you to kill and burn, the more you kill and burn, the better you will please me."
    On or about October 25th, the 11th Infantry took two of the town's bells, these, according to Schotts account being the device that was used to launch a co-ordinated attack, and returned with them to the United States in 1904 to then-Fort Russell (now AFB Warren). The bells were finally abandoned there in 1913. A third, smaller bell, (probably the one that was rung during the uprising), according to Jim Beane, a former 9th Infantry sergeant, was later crated up and sent to Madison Barracks in New York. It is now with the 9th Infantry in Korea.
    The Phillippine government have made repeated attempts to have the bells returned with no succces.

    Probably becauase the US won, neither General Smith nor Major Waller were ever bought to account for war crimes - which is a bit of a surprise - to say the least.

    Balanggiga - Massacre or just part of a heroic bid for freedom - what do you think?




    Battle of Pulang Lupa~paradise philippines

    Battle of Pulang Lupa

    The Battle of Pulang Lupa was an engagement fought on September 13, 1900, during the Philippine-American War between the forces of Colonel Maximo Abad and Devereux Shields, in which Abad's men annihilated the American force.

    Men of the 29th volunteer infantry wading ashore on Marinduque April 25, 1900
    Men of the 29th volunteer infantry wading ashore on Marinduque April 25, 1900

    Abad, observing that the Americans were trying to surrender, regained control of his men before any more surrendering Americans were slaughtered, and the survivors were led away as prisoners.

    After months of hiding, Abad in only a few hours eliminated nearly one third of the American garrison on Marinduque.


    "The severity with which the inhabitants have been dealt would not look well if a complete history of it were written out" --Governor-General of the Philippines, William Howard Taft, concerning the U.S. Army campaign on the island of Marinduque during the Philippine-American War of 1899-1902 [1]

    On September 11, Captain Devereux Shields led a detachment of 54 29th U.S. Volunteer Infantrymen into the mountains of Torrijos to combat the elusive Abad and his guerillas. They experienced little success, except for the dispersing of 20 guerillas, in which no casualties were inflicted on either side.
    Background
    Abad had excellent intelligence and was informed of Shields' movements by the local guerillas ahead of time. In response, he assembled his entire force of 250 regular Filipino soldiers and around 1,000-2,000 bolomen. The regular Philippine soldiers were well organized and reasonably well armed with bolos, pistols, and Spanish Mausers, despite the fact that most were poor shots. The bolomen, armed only with machetes or bolos, served mainly to bolster Abad's forces. Dressed as friendly farmers or civilians in the day time, they took part in guerilla activities at night. Ambushing small detachments of American soldiers, sabotage, and most importantly, supplying Abad with intelligence on American positions and movements. They had little military value however, considering they had no firearms.

    The Americans lost 4 killed and 50 captured, 6 of which wounded including Shields. A large selection of American firearms were also taken by the guerillas. The Filipino losses are unknown, although Shields claimed to have inflicted 30 casualties on the Filipinos, this number was never verified.

    Shields' defeat sent shock waves through the American high command. Aside from being one of the worst defeats suffered by the Americans during the war, it was especially significant given its proximity to the upcoming election between President William McKinley and his anti-imperialist opponent William Jennings Bryan, the outcome of which many believed would determine the ultimate course of the war. Consequently, the defeat triggered a sharp response.

    Although Abad and most of his command had eluded the American military, the civilian population was suffering for it. Being placed into concentration camps and routine interrogation led many of the guerillas to surrender, thus decreasing the manpower and materials of the resistance.

    These new tactics led to the surrender of Abad in April 1901.


    Battle of Pulang Lupa Marker

    The marker stands at the site of the bloodiest battle fought in the island between the Philippine Revolutionary Forces and the Americans. The “Battle of Pulang Lupa” was the first known major battle won by the Filipinos over the Americans. The area is surrounded by dense vegetation making it an ideal place for camping.

    in December 1898, the U.S. purchased the Philippines and other territories from Spain at the Treaty of Paris for 20 million US dollars. The US had plans to make the Philippines an American colony - which is a bit of a cheek for a nation that was and is, supposedly, against colonialism.

    The people of the Philippines, who had had been fighting for their independence from Spain since 1896, rightly, had a different idea, and had already declared their independence on June 12. The US response, was to send, on August 14, 11,000 ground troops to occupy the Philippines. This was the start of The Philippine-American War and 129,000 more US troops were soon to follow. (We might ask, a century later, if the US has learned anything at all from history?)

    On this day, September 13, in 1900 at Pulang Lupa, which is in Torrijos on Marinduque island in the Philippines, resistance fighters and guerrillas led by Colonel Maximo Abad inflicted a crushing defeat on a detachment of the US 29th Infantry, who were commanded by Captain Devereux Shields. The battle began when Abad and his men surrounded the infantrymen and fired a volley into the soldiers. Shields, realising that he was almost completely surrounded, ordered a retreat. But before his forces got far, Colonel Abad led a charge against the Americans. The result of the charge was a short but extremely vicious hand to hand fight, with Abad's men making use of their native machete - the bolo. The Americans took very heavy casualties, and retreated further. The guerrillas pursued and harried the Americans as they fled. The battle lasted all that day and into the early morning of the next day, when Captain Shields and his surviving men attempted to surrender en masse. But as they did, Abads men fired upon them and hacked them up with bolo knives. Many experts consider this the most bloody engagement of the war. Unfortunately, while it was undoubtedly one of only a few confidence-boosting victories for the Filipinos, it could not avert the inevitable defeat, which came, finally in 1913.

    A very nasty, unnecessary and bloody war, the US lost some 4,324 American soldiers with 2,818 wounded. The Philippine Constabulary - in support of the US occupation, suffered 2,000 casualties, of which over a thousand were fatalities. In contrast, the Philippine military deaths are estimated at 20,000, while civilian deaths numbered around 1,000,000. The high casualty figures suffered by the people of the Philippines were due mostly to the superior arms and numbers of the Americans who were utterly merciless in suppressing what they viewed as an insurrection.

    I wonder, if the US had not have won (since history is written by the victors), would the world have called this genocide?

    The Origins of the Philippines~paradise philippines

    50,000,000 BC: The archipelago is formed by volcanic activity.

    50,000 - 150 BC: Negroid and Malay people migrate to the Philippines.

    10th Century AD: The Chinese establish commerce and settlements.

    1150 - 1475: Muslims from Borneo reach the Philippines.

    1203/1205: The sultanate of Maguindanao is established. Islam eventually spreads throughout the Philippines.

    1450: The sultanate of Jolo is established.

    1457: The sultanate of Sulu is established.

    June 7, 1494: Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas. The treaty divides the New World into two between Spain and Portugal.

    1506: The pope grants official recognition of the Treaty of Tordesillas.

    The Discovery of the Philippines

    September 20, 1519: Magellan departs from Spain with five ships and a complement of 264 crew.

    March 16, 1521: Ferdinand Magellan discovers the Philippines and claims it for Spain and names it Islas de San Lazaro.

    March 31, 1521: The first mass in the Philippines takes place.

    April 7, 1521: Magellan arrives at Cebu and befriends Rajah Humabon, ruler of Cebu. A significant number of Cebu natives are converted to Catholicism.

    April 27, 1521: Magellan is killed in battle on Mactan Island by Lapu-Lapu. Disputes over women cause deterioration of Spaniard-Cebuano relations and 27 Spaniards are killed. The remaining Spaniards depart.

    1522: Of the five ships that departed Spain with Magellan, only one ship returns with a crew of 18. The voyage however, is a success and the ship's cargo makes a profit of 105%.

    1525: Spain sends a second expedition to the Philippines under Juan Garcia Jofre de Loaysa.

    1526: A third expedition under Juan Cabot is sent but never reaches the Philippines. Instead, the expedition spends three years in South America.

    1527: From Mexico, a fourth expedition is sent under Alvaro de Saavedra and eventually reaches Mindanao.

    1529: Saavedra dies during the journey of his expedition's return to Spain.

    1536: The Loaysa expedition returns to Spain. The expedition is a failure with Loaysa and many of his crew having died in the Philippines.

    February 2, 1543: Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, leader of the fifth expedition arrives in the Philippines. He names it after the Spanish heir to the throne, Philip II. Villalobos remains in the Philippines for eight months before being forced to leave due to lack of food.





    The Philippines as a Spanish Colony

    Almost half a century after Magellan's death, the Spanish returned to the Philippines with the intention of establishing a colony. In the first half of their occupation (which is not as well documented as the second half), the Spanish managed to defend the Philippines from the Dutch and various Chinese warlords. In the second half of their occupation, much discontent grew as to how the Spanish ran the colony and treated its people. Revolution was the outcome. Rizal tried a more peaceful approach but for Bonifacio, armed revolution was the only option. As the revolution progressed, a revolutionary government was formed with Aguinaldo as president. After an agreement with Spain, Aguinaldo left in exile to Hong Kong but returned along with American forces in the Spanish-American War and proclaimed independence from Spain.

    Early Spanish Rule

    February 13, 1565: Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and his men arrive in the Philippines.

    February 15, 1565: King Philip II of Spain appoints Miguel Lopez de Legazpi as the first governor-general of the Philippines which is to be administered as a territory of Mexico (then referred to as New Spain).

    May 8, 1565: The natives of Cebu submit to Spanish rule under Legazpi and Cebu becomes the capital of the Philippines.

    1568: The Portuguese, who believe that under the Treaty of Tordesillas, the Philippines falls under Portuguese jurisdiction, attack Cebu and blockade the port.

    1570: The Portuguese launch a second attack on the Philippines but are unsuccessful.

    May 1570: Legazpi sends an expedition to Manila which befriends the ruler of Manila, Rajah Soliman.

    May/June 1570: War breaks out between the Spanish and Rajah Soliman as a result of either a misunderstanding or due to an attempt to impose Spanish sovereignty on the Manila natives. Soliman's warriors are defeated and Maynilad (Manila) is burnt to the ground and occupied by the Spanish.

    June 24, 1571: Legazpi selects Manila as the capital of the colony because of the natural harbour and rich lands surrounding the city that could supply it with produce.

    November 1574: The Chinese pirate Limahong attacks Manila and attempts to invade the city but is unsuccessful.

    December 1574: Limahong launches a second attack on Manila but is again unsuccessful. Limahong leaves Manila for Pangasinan. Following Limahong's defeat, Rajah Soliman and Lakandula lead a short revolt against the Spanish in towns north of Manila after some of their lands are given away to Spanish officials.

    March 23, 1575: A Spanish-Filipino force leaves for Pangasinan where Limahong has established his own kingdom. In the following months, Limahong's Chinese fleet is destroyed by fire. His fort is attacked and damaged by fire but holds out giving Limahong time to build new boats and repair some of the breaches in his fort.

    August 4, 1575: Limahong sets sail for China and departs the fort via a secret channel that his men had dug. The Spanish are taken by surprise by this development and drive wooden stakes into the riverbed where they expect Limahong to pass through. As Limahong arrives at the stakes the Spanish subject his fleet to a blinding fire. Despite this, the Chinese remove enough stakes to allow Limahong to escape.

    1580: Philip II of Spain becomes Philip I of Portugal (not officially recognised until 1581), ultimately ending the dispute between Spain and Portugal over the Philippines. In the same year, forced labour is imposed on Filipino males aged 16 to 60.

    1585: In Pampanga, a revolt is planned against the Spanish who learn of the revolt before it even takes place. The leaders of the planned revolt are executed.

    1589: A revolt breaks out in the Ilocos and Cagayan areas over abuses of tax collectors and unfair taxes. The Spanish forces pacify the rebels and grant them pardon. The tax system is overhauled.

    1600: The galleon trade between Manila and Acapulco, Mexico begins.

    1600 - 1617: The Dutch attempt to seize the Philippines but are defeated by the Spanish navy.

    1603: The Chinese revolt against injustices under the Spanish who suppress the revolt brutally.

    1621: A revolt breaks out in Bohol lead by Tamblot, a priest of the native religion. The revolt is followed by other revolts in Leyte, Panay and Samar against collection of tributes.

    January 1, 1622: The revolt in Bohol lead by Tamblot is crushed.

    1639: The Chinese revolt against Spanish rule. The revolt is brutally suppressed.

    1646: The Spanish navy repulses five separate Dutch attempts to enter and capture Manila throughout the year.

    June 1, 1649: A revolt breaks out in Samar lead by Juan Ponce Sumuroy in protest of native Warays being sent to the shipyards of Cavite under the imposed forced labour.

    June 1650: Sumuroy is defeated, captured and executed which ends the revolt in Samar.

    1662: The Chinese revolt against Spanish rule. The revolt is brutally suppressed.

    1686: The Chinese revolt against Spanish rule. The revolt is brutally suppressed.

    1744 - 1829: Bohol remains outside of Spanish control following one of the most successful revolts against Spanish authority led by Francisco Dagohoy. None of the Spanish governor-generals serving in office throughout the revolt are able to suppress it. Dagohoy dies two years before the end of the revolt and thousands of survivors are granted pardon after the revolt is over.

    1745 - 1746: A revolt breaks out in Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite and Laguna after greedy Spanish friars seize land from the Filipino natives. In retaliation, churches are looted are burnt to the ground. The Spanish authorities investigate the case which even reaches the king of Spain who orders the friars to return the lands. The friars successfully appeal and no land is returned to the Filipino landowners.

    British Occupation and the Seven Years War

    1756: The Seven Years War begins although hostilities had already begun sometime before war was declared.

    September 24, 1762: British forces land off Manila and attack.

    October 6, 1762: The Spanish surrender Manila and the Philippines to the British but organise a resistance to retake the Philippines. The long persecuted Chinese merchant community support the British invasion. The Spanish establish a new capital in Bacolor. The British forces open the colony to international trade.

    December 14, 1762: Diego Silang starts a revolt against the Spanish and declares an independent and free state called Ilocandia with Vigan as its capital. Silang and the British join forces against the Spanish.

    May 28, 1763: Diego Silang is murdered by his friend who was paid by the Spanish for the murder. The revolt continues led by Diego's wife, Gabriela Silang.

    September 10, 1763: Gabriela Silang attacks Vigan but the Spanish are well prepared and supported by a Filipino force from surrounding regions. Many of Gabriela's men are killed but she escapes along with her uncle and several other men to Abra but captured several days later.

    September 29, 1763: Gabriela and her remaining followers are executed by hanging. Gabriela is the last to die and ultimately becomes the first female martyr of the Philippines. History will remember her as the Joan of Arc of Ilocandia.

    February 10, 1763: Under the Treaty of Paris, Britain returns the Philippines to Spain.

    July 23, 1763: News of the Treaty of Paris reaches the British governor of the Philippines. He attempts to negotiate a truce with the Spanish who do not trust the British and so hostilities continue.

    1764: The Spanish learn of the treaty from Madrid. All fighting ceases.

    May 31, 1764: The British withdraw from the Philippines but illegally retain a base in the Sulu islands. Several years later, they are forcefully evicted by Filipinos.

    The Decline of Spanish Rule

    November 9, 1774: Filipino natives are permitted to enter the Catholic priesthood.

    June 6, 1808: Joseph Bonaparte becomes the king of Spain after being installed by his brother, Napoleon Bonaparte, the emperor of France.

    September 16, 1810: Mexico declares independence from Spain and the war for independence begins.

    March 19, 1812: The Spanish Cortes adopts the 1812 Constitution (also known as the Cadiz Constitution as the Cortes was holding its session in the City of Cadiz). The constitution is liberal and all citizens of Spain, including all natives of colonies and overseas territories are given equal rights and representation in the Cortes.

    September 24, 1812: The first Philippine delegates to the Spanish Cortes take their oath of office in Madrid.

    October, 1813: Napoleon and the French are defeated in the Battle of Nations. Napoleonic forces are driven out of Spain.

    December 11, 1813: Ferdinand VII is recognised as the king of Spain.

    1815: The galleon trade with Mexico comes to an end.

    May 24, 1816: A conservative Spanish Cortes rejects the Cadiz Constitution and repeals all liberties, equality and representation it gave to Filipinos.

    September 27, 1821: Spain officially recognises the independence of Mexico. The Philippines must now be governed directly from Madrid.

    September 6, 1834: Spain opens Philippine ports to international free trade. The commercialisation of Philippine agriculture begins and results in economic expansion.

    1839: Apolinario de la Cruz (also known as Hermano Pule) is refused entry to a monastic order in Manila as he is a native Filipino.

    June, 1840: Apolinario de la Cruz forms the Cofradia de San Jose (Confraternity of St. Joseph), a Filipino-only Christian brotherhood. The Spanish authorities condemn the brotherhood as heresy and outlaw it.

    October 23, 1841: The Cofradia de San Jose is forced to confront Spanish forces on the grounds of religious freedom.

    November 1, 1841: The Cofradia de San Jose is crushed by Spanish forces. Apolinario de la Cruz escapes initially is but later captured.

    November 4, 1841: Apolinario de la Cruz is executed by firing squad.

    1863: The Spanish government concedes to the increasing demand of educational reform. Originally, the religious orders excluded the teaching of foreign languages, scientific and technical subjects from their curricula. The wealthier Filipinos send their children to Spain for education.

    1868: A liberal revolution breaks out in Spain and Queen Isabella II is deposed.

    1869: The new Spanish government promulgate the liberal constitution of 1869. General Carlos Maria de la Torre, a liberal governor is appointed to the Philippines. He abolishes censorship and extends to Filipinos the rights of free speech and assembly contained in the new Spanish constitution.

    April 4, 1871: Rafael de Izquierdo replaces de la Torre and promptly rescinds the liberal measures.

    January 20, 1872: In Cavite, 200 Filipino recruits revolt and murder their Spanish officers. The Spanish suppress the revolt brutally and use the opportunity to implicate the liberal critics of Spanish authority in an imaginary wider conspiracy. Many liberals are arrested or driven into exile.

    February 17, 1872: The reformist Fathers Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora are publicly executed as part of the crack-down against liberal critics of Spanish authority. The priests are made martyrs for the nationalist cause.

    March 3, 1882: Jose Rizal leaves Manila to continue his studies in medicine in Barcelona, Spain.

    June 2, 1882: Rizal begins writing Noli Me Tangere in Madrid.

    May 29, 1887: Noli Me Tangere is published in Spain.

    October, 1887: Rizal begins writing El Filibusterismo.

    December 13, 1888: Filipinos in Barcelona organise La Solidaridad which demands equality, freedom and representation for Filipinos.

    March 28, 1891: Rizal finishes El Filibusterismo.

    July 3, 1892: Back in Manila, Rizal organises La Liga Filipina which is a peaceful reformist movement.

    July 7, 1892: Rizal is arrested for forming La Liga Filipina. Andres Bonifacio establishes Kataastaasan Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng Mga Anak ng Bayan (Highest and Most Respected Association of the Sons of the Country), also known by it initials, KKK or Katipunan. The aim of the Katipunan is to overthrow Spanish rule in the Philippines.

    July 17, 1892: Rizal is exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao.

    August 6, 1896: Rizal returns to Manila after his services as a physician have been requested for the Spanish army in Cuba. Cuba is currently having its own revolution for independence from Spain.

    August 19, 1896: A talkative Katipunero, Teodor Patino tells his sister and a nun at an orphanage about the Katipunan and their aim to overthrow Spanish rule. The nun convinces him to confess everything to Father Mariano Gil, who in turn discloses the existence of the Katipunan to the Spanish authorities. The Spanish begin making hundreds of arrests. Many Katipuneros flee to Balintawak to escape arrest.

    August 22, 1896: Around 500 Katipuneros leave Balintawak and make their way to Pugadlawin.

    The Revolution for Independence

    August 25, 1896: Bonifacio issues the call to arms, the Cry of Balintawak.

    August 29, 1896: Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto attack the Spanish garrison at San Juan with 800 Katipuneros. Insurrections also brake out in eight provinces surrounding Manila on Luzon and soon spread to other islands.

    August 31, 1896: In Cavite under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo, Katipuneros defeat the Civil Guard and colonial troops.

    December 26, 1896: After being arrested in transit to Cuba, Rizal had been sent back to Fort Santiago in Manila to stand trial for rebellion. He is tried and found guilty and sentenced to death.

    December 30, 1896: Dr. Jose Rizal is executed by firing squad. His death will make him both the national hero of the Philippines and fresh determination to the Katipunan.

    May 10, 1897: The Katipunan was divided between factions loyal to Bonifacio and Aguinaldo. Aguinaldo had been elected to replace Bonifacio who then begins to withdraw his supporters. The two factions begin to fight. Aguinaldo has Bonifacio arrested, tried and executed.

    July 1897: Aguinaldo's forces are driven from Cavite to Bulacan where Aguinaldo declares his constitution and establishes the Republic of Biak-na-Bato. Both Spain and Aguinaldo's new republic realise the situation had become a no-win for either side. Negotiations begin.

    December 27, 1897: Negotiations have concluded with the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. Aguinaldo and his government accept US$800,000 (only half of this was actually paid out) for voluntary retirement and exile to Hong Kong where Aguinaldo designs what is now the Philippine national flag.

    January 20, 1898: The Truce of Biak-na-Bato is violated as the Spanish continue arresting suspected members of the Katipunan. Most of those arrested are innocent. Hostilities between Spanish and Filipino forces are resumed by General Francisco Makabulos.

    April 25, 1898: The US declares war on Spain. Relations had deteriorated over the conduct of the war for Cuban independence. Commodore George Dewey is ordered to attack the Spanish fleet in the Philippines. Prior to this, Dewey had discussions with Aguinaldo's exiled government. An agreement had been reached to crush the Spanish forces.

    May 1, 1898: By noon, Commodore George Dewey has destroyed the Spanish fleet.

    May 19, 1898: Aguinaldo returns to the Philippines to lead his rebel forces against the Spanish.

    May 24, 1898: Aguinaldo establishes a dictatorial government.

    June 12, 1898: From the balcony of his house in Cavite, Aguinaldo declares independence and displays his new flag before the people.

    June 23, 1898: Aguinaldo changes his dictatorial government to a revolutionary government.

    July 15, 1898: Aguinaldo appoints a cabinet and the Malolos Congress is formed with 136 members.