philippine history ~Ferdinand E. Marcos

Marcos and After - Ferdinand E. Marcos, who succeeded to the presidency after defeating Macapagal in the 1965 elections, inherited the territorial dispute over Sabah; in 1968 he approved a congressional bill annexing Sabah to the Philippines. Malaysia suspended diplomatic relations (Sabah had joined the Federation of Malaysia in 1963), and the matter was referred to the United Nations. (The Philippines dropped its claim to Sabah in 1978.) The Philippines became one of the founding countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967. The continuing need for land reform fostered a new Huk uprising in central Luzon, accompanied by mounting assassinations and acts of terror, and in 1969, Marcos began a major military campaign to subdue them. Civil war also threatened on Mindanao, where groups of Moros opposed Christian settlement. In Nov., 1969, Marcos won an unprecedented reelection, easily defeating Sergio Osmeña, Jr., but the election was accompanied by violence and charges of fraud, and Marcos’s second term began with increasing civil disorder.

In Jan., 1970, some 2,000 demonstrators tried to storm Malacañang Palace, the presidential residence; riots erupted against the U.S. embassy. When Pope Paul VI visited Manila in Nov., 1970, an attempt was made on his life. In 1971, at a Liberal party rally, hand grenades were thrown at the speakers’ platform, and several people were killed. President Marcos declared martial law in Sept., 1972, charging that a Communist rebellion threatened. The 1935 constitution was replaced (1973) by a new one that provided the president with direct powers. A plebiscite (July, 1973) gave Marcos the right to remain in office beyond the expiration (Dec., 1973) of his term. Meanwhile the fighting on Mindanao had spread to the Sulu Archipelago. By 1973 some 3,000 people had been killed and hundreds of villages burned. Throughout the 1970s poverty and governmental corruption increased, and Imelda Marcos, Ferdinand’s wife, became more influential.

Martial law remained in force until 1981, when Marcos was reelected, amid accusations of electoral fraud. On Aug. 21, 1983, opposition leader Benigno Aquino was assassinated at Manila airport, which incited a new, more powerful wave of anti-Marcos dissent. After the Feb., 1986, presidential election, both Marcos and his opponent, Corazon Aquino (the widow of Benigno), declared themselves the winner, and charges of massive fraud and violence were leveled against the Marcos faction. Marcos’s domestic and international support eroded, and he fled the country on Feb. 25, 1986, eventually obtaining asylum in the United States.

Aquino’s government faced mounting problems, including coup attempts, significant economic difficulties, and pressure to rid the Philippines of the U.S. military presence (the last U.S. bases were evacuated in 1992). In 1990, in response to the demands of the Moros, a partially autonomous Muslim region was created in the far south. In 1992, Aquino declined to run for reelection and was succeeded by her former army chief of staff Fidel Ramos. He immediately launched an economic revitalization plan premised on three policies: government deregulation, increased private investment, and political solutions to the continuing insurgencies within the country. His political program was somewhat successful, opening dialogues with the Marxist and Muslim guerillas. However, Muslim discontent with partial rule persisted, and unrest and violence continued throughout the 1990s. In 1999, Marxist rebels and Muslim separatists formed an alliance to fight the government.

Several natural disasters, including the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo on Luzon and a succession of severe typhoons, slowed the country’s economic progress. However, the Philippines escaped much of the economic turmoil seen in other East Asian nations in 1997 and 1998, in part by following a slower pace of development imposed by the International Monetary Fund. Joseph Marcelo Estrada, a former movie actor, was elected president in 1998, pledging to help the poor and develop the country’s agricultural sector. In 1999 he announced plans to amend the constitution in order to remove protectionist provisions and attract more foreign investment.

Late in 2000, Estrada’s presidency was buffeted by charges that he accepted millions of dollars in payoffs from illegal gambling operations. Although his support among the poor Filipino majority remained strong, many political, business, and church leaders called for him to resign. In Nov., 2000, Estrada was impeached by the house of representatives on charges of graft, but the senate, controlled by Estrada’s allies, provoked a crisis (Jan., 2001) when it rejected examining the president’s bank records. As demonstrations against Estrada mounted and members of his cabinet resigned, the supreme court stripped him of the presidency, and Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo was sworn in as Estrada’s successor.

Macapagal-Arroyo was elected president in her own right in May, 2004, but the balloting was marred by violence and irregularities as well as a tedious vote-counting process that was completed six weeks after the election.

Source: The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05.



Without having been at the center of military action, Siquijor had not been spared by World War II. Japanese detachments occupied the island. Guerillas engaged in sabotage and the interaction wrought havoc on lives and properties.

At this period, Siquijor was briefly governed by Shunzo Suzuki, a Japanese civilian appointed by the Japanese Imperiol Forces until he was assassinated by the guerilla forces led by Iluminado Jumawanin Caipilan, Siquijor in October 1942. Mamor Fukuda took over the control of Siquijor from June 1943 until the Japanese forces abandoned the island when the liberation forces came in 1944.

At the outbreak of World War II, Siquijor, then a sub-province of Negros Oriental, was headed by Lieutenant Governor Nicolas Parami. Refusing to pledge allegiance to the Japanese Imperial Forces, Lt. Governor Parami was taken by Japanese soldiers from his residence at Poo, Lazi one evening and brought to the Military headquarters in Larena. He was never heard of again.

The Japanese announced their arrival in the island by heavy shelling. On November 10, 1942, Japanese warships started shelling Lazi town from Cang-abas Point. Properties and lives were lost. Then followed the enemy occupation. In Lazi, a garrison was established in the old Home Economics Building of the Central School.

In 1943, the Japanese Puppet Government appointed Sebastian Monera of San Juan as governor of Siquijor. His administration however was cut short when he was executed presumably by Filipino guerillas operating in the mountains of Siquijor.

GABRIELA SILANG~paradise philippines

f France had a St. Joan of Arc (1412-1431), who liberated his country from the English invaders, and if Vietnam had the fighting Trang sisters, who save their native land from the Chinese invaders, the Philippine had, at least two freedom fighter – Maria Josefa Gabriela Silang (Mrs. Diego Silang) of Ilokandia and Teresa Magbanua of Iloilo. As the wife of the famous Diego Silang, Ilocandia’s liberator, Maria Josefa Gabriela was popularly known as Mrs. Diego Silang. By her own right, she was equally great as her husband. After her husband’s assassination, she continued his libertarian movement, fighting valiantly on the bloody battlefields and died with heroic courage at the hands of the Spanish enemy.

Mrs. Silang was born in the barrio of Canlogan, Santa, Ilocos Sur, on March 19, 1731. Her father was an Ilokano peasant from Santa and her mother, an Itneg household maid from Pidigan, Abra. She was brought up as a Christian by he father, for she had been separated from her pagan mother since birth.

She grew up to a comely lass, noted for her pious and charitable character. At the age of 20, she was forced by her father to marry a rich old man, who died shortly after the wedding, leaving his wealth to his young widow. Thus, she became a rich and pretty widow, very much attractive to all eligible swains.

Diego Silang who was then a young and dashing mail-carrier between Vigan and Manila, fell in love with the beautiful widow. After a few years of romance, they were married and established their residence in Vigan. For five years, they lived happily, although unblessed by children. Diego Silang continued his regular trips to Manila, in the course of which he made many friends not only in the capital city but also in the towns and provinces where he made brief stopovers.

In September, 1762 the raging Seven Years’ War in Europe reached the Philippine shores. A British expeditionary force, prepared in India by the English East India Company upon orders of the British Crown and commanded by General William Draper and Admiral Samuel Cornish entered Manila Bay on September 22, began the siege of Manila on the

dont miss:

24th, and captured it on October 5.

The capture of Manila by the British invaders shattered Spain’s military prestige and inspired the oppressed Filipinos in certain regions to rise in arms against Spanish rule. In Ilocandia, Diego Silang, with the help of his brave wife, emerged a liberator. On December 14, 1762, Silang proclaimed the independence of his people and made Vigan the capital of Free Ilocos. He proved to be an able general, for he routed the Spanish forces in Cabugao. Falling to crush his independent government by force arms, the Spanish authorities resorted to a sinister strategy-assassination. The hired assassin, Miguel Vicos, a perfidious mestizo friend of Silang, succeeded in killing him on May 28, 1763.

Mrs. Silang widowed fro a second time, assumed the leadership of the libertarian cause and carried on the war against Spain. She was assisted by Nicolas Cariño, Diego Silang’s uncle, and by other faithful lieutenants of her late husband.

Driven out of Vigan by the superior forces of Spain, she retreated, with the remnants of her lamented husband army, to Pidigan, the hometown of he r Itneg mother. This town became the capital of the free Ilocos government-in-exile. She recruited more freedom fighters, including Itneg archers, and prepared for recapture of Vigan. Meanwhile, she launched guerilla attacks on the Spanish garrisons on the coastal towns. Her unique policy of harassment was so successful that the name generala, which was given to her by the masses, struck, terror to the Spanish troops and to Ilocanos who collaborated with Spain.

About the last week of August, 1763, Mrs. Silang was able to muster a fighting force of 2,000 men armed with assorted weapons – Spanish muskets captured from the enemy bamboo spears hardened in the fire (bikal) bows and arrows (pana), blowguns (sumpit), bleded weapons (bolos, draggers, and swords), and head axes (wasay).

While she was preparing the offensive for the recapture of Vigan, the Spanish authorities were massing a huge army of 6,000 strong for the defense of the city. By the first week of September, Mrs. Silang astride a prancing horse led the marchtowards Vigan. Upon her command, her bolo brigade, supported by Itneg archers, assaulted the city defenders, offered by trained Spanish officers, and supported by artillery, rolled back the attack, inflicting heavy losses on the generala’s army.

Mrs. Silang, undaunted by the first repulse, launched a second attack. She personally led this assault to encourage her warriors to fight fiercely. But, outnumbered and outarmed, her men could not crack the enemy line. Demoralized by the futility of crushing the enemy, they panicked and fled the battlefield. The valiant Cariño, bravest captain of the generala, perished in action.

The fearless generala and some brave survivors retreated again to the wilds of Abra. A picked brigade of Spanish troopers and loyal Cagayan warriors under Don Manuel de Arza pursued the fleeting patriots, capturing them later in the hinterlands.

Terrible Spanish justice was meted out to Mrs. Silang and 80 of her surviving men. Her brave men were hung one by one along the coastal towns as a stern warning to the Ilocano’s that any resistance to Spain would mean death on the gallows.

Mrs. Silang, the leader and last survivor of the lost rebellion, was brought to Vigan, where she was publicly hanged on September 20, 1763. She died with calmed courage, as befitted a true heroine. Thus ended the heroic life of the fighting widow, the “Joan of Arc of Ilocandia,” and the short-lived independence of the Ilocano people. She deserves the garland of greatness, for she fought and died for her people’s freedom. She was truly the “first woman general” and the “first female martyr” in the Philippine history.


Lapu-Lapu was the first Philippine hero. He was the chief of Mactan Island. When Ferdinand Magellan "discovered" the Philippines and landed in Cebu, he ordered Filipinos to honour the king of Spain. Chief Lapu-Lapu refused his demand. Magellan and 48 of his soldiers met Lapu-Lapu in Mactan Island for battle. Magellan and 15 of his men were killed.

Bataan Death March

Bataan Death March

In March 1942, Homma began his plans for the American and Filipino troops who would become Prisoners of War. He planned on moving them to Camp O'Donnell, about one hundred miles away. According to the Japanese military, this was not a long distance, and their troops could easily accomplish it within a few days. However, those on Bataan were not in good physical health. Since January they had been on half-rations or less. During the surrender agreement, King told Homma that he had more men than the Japanese planned for and that they were ill and undernourished. But Homma ignored these facts, plus King's offer to drive the troops to the prison camps. According to the Japanese, once the POWs were in their captivity, they could do with them as they wished, and King's requests were disgraceful. (47)

"U.S. prisoners on Bataan sorting equipment while Japanese guards look on. Following this, the Americans and Filipinos started on the Death March to Camp O'Donnell in central Luzon. Over 50,000 prisoners were held at this camp. A few U.S. troops escaped capture and carried on as guerrillas."
From: Hunter, p. 45

From the day of surrender on, the POWs would be harshly beaten and killed for the slightest or no reason at all. Officer status did not provide protection either. First the troops were searched. Any prisoner found with Japanese souvenirs was executed immediately, because the Japanese believed the soldier must have killed a Japanese soldier in order to get it. Many soldiers had found these items, such as money and shaving mirrors. Their own personal property was usually stolen as well. (48)

"Articles Carried on Death March. Crucifix and other possessions of Lt. Col. Dyess. The tobacco can was his billfold."
From: Dyess, between pp. 96-97

The Bataan Death March.
U.S. National Archives
From: Daws, p. 229

The Bataan Death March began at Mariveles on April 10, 1942. Any troops who fell behind were executed. Japanese troops beat soldiers randomly, and denied the POWs food and water for many days. One of their tortures was known as the sun treatment. The Philippines in April is very hot. Therefore, the POWs were forced to sit in the sun without any shade, helmets, or water. Anyone who dared ask for water was executed. On the rare occasion they were given any food, it was only a handful of contaminated rice. When the prisoners were allowed to sleep for a few hours at night, they were packed into enclosures so tight that they could barely move. Those who lived collapsed on the dead bodies of their comrades. For only a brief part of the march would POWs be packed into railroad cars and allowed to ride. Those who did not die in the suffocating boxcars were forced to march about seven more miles until they reached their camp. It took the POWs over a week to reach their destination. (49) Those on Corregidor would suffer the same fate as their fellow soldiers on Bataan did as they too were transferred to Bataan.

"The infamous Death March from Bataan in 1942, showing thinning file of prisoners carrying comrades who dropped along the way."
Photo by: Wide World Photos, From: Buchanan, between pp. 108-109 photo #7

"The Bataan Death March-the end of the road."
U.S. National Archives, From: Daws, p. 229

Macario Sakay~paradise philippines

Macario Sakay

Macario Sakay established and led the revolutionary group “Tagalog Republic.” He was the reason why after the arrest of Aguinaldo in 1901, the Filipinos insurgency against the Americans continued.

He was born in Tondo in 1870. His family was part of the working class sector. His first job was at a kalesa manufacturing shop, and then he became a tailor, barber, and actor in komedyas and moro-moros. His theater experience improved his dedication, courage and self-discipline.

During the initial stages of the Filipino-American war, Sakay was jailed for his seditious activities. He had been caught forming several Katipunan chapters and preaching its ideals from town to town.

He was released in 1902, as a result of an amnesty. He, together with other former members of the Katipunan established a group that was christened “Republika ng Katagaluhan.” He became the leader of the group whose primary intention is to liberate the Filipinos from the American colonizers.

Sakay was tough. He made it known to the Americans that they were true revolutionaries. He further added that they had their own constitution and established government. In fact, they have their own flag as a blatant show of defiance to the Americans.

In late 1904, Sakay and his men took military offensive against the Americans. They were able to seize ammunition and firearms in their raids in Cavite and Batangas. Disguised in Philippine Constabulary uniforms, they captured the U.S. military garrison in Parañaque and ran away with large amounts of revolvers and ammunitions.

Using guerrilla warfare, Sakay would always utilize a large number of rebels against a small group of American soldiers to guarantee a successful ambush attack. They usually attack at night when most of their enemies are asleep.

Sakay and some of his men voluntarily surrendered on July 14, 1906.

Three days after, they were arrested by a couple of American soldiers while attending a party hosted by the governor of Cavite. Dominador Gomez was successful in double-crossing Sakay. They imprisoned him at Bilibid. He was hanged to death a year after his arrest.

Mariano Ponce

Mariano Ponce

Researcher, historian, bibliographer, propagandist, diplomat, physician, folklorist, and an outstanding reformist. Born in Baliwag, Bulacan, on March 23, 1863. While in Spain, he joined the propaganda movement and became one of the initiators of La Solidaridad, later becoming its managing editor. Died in HongKong on May 23, 1918.

Ang Himagsikan Ng Mga Pilipino

Bungad Panawagan

WALA AKONG katungkulan sa pamahalaan ng Pilipinas mula nuong Mayo 1899 hanggang sa sumunod na Deciembre, nang dakpin ako ng mga Arthur MacArthur sundalong Amerkano. Ni hindi ako nakatira sa malapit sa pamahalaan, ngunit inako kong tungkulin na ipaglaban ang hangarin ng bayan. Paniwala ko rin na dapat ilahad ko sa usisa ng mga tao ang aking mga tinangka at mga ginawa sa aking panunungkulan, ngayon at nararamdaman kong patapos na ang aking mga pagsisikap.

Mula nuong ako ay mabihag ng mga Amerkano, at bago nila ako ipinatapon dito sa Guam, naging karangalan kong makausap nang masinsinan at ilang ulit sina General Arthur MacArthur at General J.F. Bell tungkol sa pagwawakas ng digmaan at pagpapayapa sa buong kapuluan. Matatanto ang aking asal sa isang sulyap lamang sa aming pag-uusap, sinimulan ng 2 general sa pahayag na sabik silang umaasa na tutulong ako sa pagpapayapa ng kapuluan at sa ganoong paraan lamang daw makakamit ng mga Pilipino ang kanilang ikabubuti. Sinagot ko na mahal din sa akin ang hangaring ito at itinanong ko sa kanila kung

paano ako makakatulong. Nuon nila sinabi na magtitiwala sila sa akin at tatanggapin ang aking paglilingkod kung tapat kong tatanggapin ang pagsakop ng America, lalo na kung tutulong akong magtatag ng uri ng pamahalaan na, sa palagay nila, ay ikaliligaya ng mga tao.

Tumanggi ako. Oras na gawin ko iyon, ang sabi ko, mawawala ang tiwala ng mga tao sa akin, sa init ng kaluoban nila nuong mga panahong iyon, kaya magwawalang silbi ang aking pagpapayapa o ano pa mang gawaing subukin ko. Inakala ng 2 general na ang sagot ko ay pagtatakip lamang sa hangad kong matatag na tumuligsa sa mga pakana ng mga Amerkano.

Ito ang dahilan, sabi nila sa akin, naniniwala sila na ang tigas ng ulo ko, at ni Ginoong Aguinaldo, ang tanging balakid sa pagpapatahimik sa bayan, katahimikang walang tigatig nilang makakamit kahit na umabot sa pagpapatapon sa akin at sa sinumang tumangging sumuko sa America.

Ang himagsikan, sabi ko sa kanila, ay hindi nagmula sa pagnanasa ng iisang tao kundi sa pagkasawi ng mga hangarin ng lahat ng tao. Naniniwala ako na kapag lantad na sinalungat namin ni Ginoong Aguinaldo ang mga hangaring ito, maglalaho ang pagtingin ng mga tao sa amin at wala kaming magagawa upang hadlangan ang muling pagsabog ng aklasan, sa madali o malayong panahon, sa pamumuno ng ibang tao.

Walang silbi ang pagpatapon

Ang tunay na katahimikan, sabi ko, ay makakamit lamang kung mauunawaan ng mga Amerkano kung paano mahuhuli ang kalooban ng mga Pilipino, at ang paggamit ng dahas at pagparusa ay labag sa kalooban ng mga tao.

Suriin ninyo ang karanasan ng yumaong pananakop ng mga Español, ang sabi ko, ang pagpatapon sa mga tao ay nagpasidhi lamang sa muhi at pakikibaka ng mga tao sapagkat kalupitan at hindi katarungan ang parusahan, ipiit at ipatapon ang mga bihag na hindi man lamang pinaharap sa hukuman.

Sa halip na kalabanin ang mga balak ng mga Amerkano, sabi ko sa kanila, tinangka ko ngang ihayag nang malinaw ang hangarin ng mga naghihimagsik, pati na ang lahat ng mga tao, at nang sa gayon, maiwasan ng mga Amerkano ang pagpapairal ng mga tuntunin na maaaring ikagalit pang lalo ng mga Pilipino. Kaya pinipilit kong hindi mawala ang tiwala ng mga tao sa akin, at patuloy akong magkaroon ng silbi hindi lamang sa mga Pilipino kundi pati na sa mga Amerkano.

Maaari kayong magkamali, sabi ko sa mga general, sa tantiya niyong mahuhupa ang aklasan ng bayan kapag nabihag at naipatapon si Aguinaldo.

Sa ganoong pangyayari, kakailanganin ninyo ang tulong ng mga Pilipino na pinagkakatiwalaan pa ng mga naghihimagsik upang makamit pa rin ang katahimikan ng kapuluan. Sinabi kong may mga higit na mahusay at may mga higit na pinagkakatiwalaan ng mga naghihimagsik, kaya ako ay maghihintay na lamang sa tabi upang ialay ang aking tulong kung sila man ay mangailangan o masawi sa pagpapayapa ng bayan.

Sa matama kong pagsuri ngayon sa mga sumunod na pangyayari, wari ko ba’y walang katuturan ang pagpapatapon sa akin dito sa Guam, sa nangyaring pagbihag kay Aguinaldo at kay Vicente Lukban, o sa pagsuko ni Miguel Malvar at ng iba pang pinuno ng himagsikan. Kabaligtaran, paniwala ko na nagpatagal pa ng labanan at nagpadami pa sa mga napatay.

Naturing na gawain ng mahina ang makipagkasunduan, kaya walang nalalabing paraan na makapagpapayapa kundi pagpuksa sa mga naghihimagsik. Nagsikap tayo nang sukdulan sa panalig nating dapat ipagtanggol ang ating dangal at kalayaan sa abot ng ating kakayahan upang magkakaroon ng katarungan at pantayan sa lipunan ng mga tao at mga sumasakop na dayuhan, ngunit hindi karaniwang nagwawagi ang mahina laban sa malakas, kaya alam din natin na hindi magtatagal, mauubos ang ating lakas at tayo ay tiyak na matatalo.

Wasak Na Español Sumumpa ng pananalig sa America

Nang sumuko ang daig karamihan ng mga tao sa pagsakop ng mga dayuhan, nawalan ng katwiran ang magpatuloy ng pakikibaka sapagkat salungat na ito sa pasiya ng mga tao. Katotohanan, sumanib na sa mga Amerkano ang maraming naghihimagsik nuong hindi sila nakalaya sa sariling kakayahan dahil sa lakas ng hukbong Amerkano, at umasa na lamang sa mga pangako ng America. Ang pagsuko ng mga kahuli-hulihang pangkat ng aklasan ay sinundan ng pahayag ng kapatawaran sa lahat, at nuong Agosto 24, 1902, sinabi sa aming mga naipatapon dito sa Guam na malaya kaming makakabalik sa Pilipinas kung aamin kami sa pagsakop ng America sa Pilipinas, at susumpa kami ng pananalig sa America nang tapat at walang pag-iimbot.

Nadama kong hindi ako makakasumpa hanggang hindi ako tiyak na dapat kong gawin ito, kaya sinunod ko ang aking budhi at hiniling na ibalik ako sa Manila bilang isang bihag, ayon sa pahayag na ang ‘pagsumpa ay gaganapin sa anumang pook ng Pilipinas na may Amerkanong may sapat na kapangyarihang tumanggap sa sumpa.’ Pumayag ang governador ng Guam na ipadala ang aking hiling sa mga maykapangyarihan, ngunit hindi niya sinabi sa akin na aabutin ito nang matagal at bandang katapusan na ng Deciembre nang mapagpasiyahan ang aking hiling. Naghintay pa rin ako nang buong tiyaga. Tapos, nuong Febrero 9, 1903, inabót sa akin ng pinuno ng bilangguan ang sulat ng governador na malaya akong makakapunta kahit saan maliban sa Pilipinas, na kailangan akong sumumpa ng pananalig sa America bago ako makabalik ng bayan. Humingi ako ng dagdag na panahong pag-isipan ito sapagkat mahirap para sa akin na magpasiya tungkol dito.

Upang makauwi sa sariling bayan

Sa unang tingin, madaling sumumpa ngunit gaya ninuman, may mga paniwala akong sinusunod at isa rito ay, ang lahat ng kapangyarihang sumasaklaw sa mga tao ay likas na nakasalalay sa mga tao na rin, kaya ang pagsumpa ng pananalig sa pagsakop ng America sa Pilipinas ay maniwaring labag sa batas ng kalikasan na ipinataw ng Maykapal sa daigdig mula pa nuong simula ng panahon. Inukilkil ako ng aking budhi, kalapastanganan ang sumumpa sa ngalan ng Maykapal ng paglabag sa kanyang kautusan.

Isa pa, kung ang pag-iisip at pagsasalita ay kasama sa mga kalayaan ng mga mamamayan ng Pilipinas, makatarungan bang pilitan akong itatwa ang aking mga pinaniniwalaan, nuong sandali mismong mangangako akong mamumuhay na ng marangal at mapayapa? At pagkatapos sumumpa, lalabag ba ako sa pananalig sa America kung iadhika ko na bawasan ang kapangyarihan ng America, paliitin ang pagsakop nito sa Pilipinas, at itanghal ang sariling pamahalaan ng mga Pilipino sa sandaling makayanan nilang ganapan ito, ayon sa pangako na rin ng pamahalaan ng America?

Hindi ba pagtataguyod ng kasinungalingan ang pilitin ang mga Pilipino na sumumpa nang salungat sa batas ng kalikasan? Hindi ba mas mainam

humanap ng ibang paraan upang mapairal ang kapayapaan sa Pilipinas?

Totoong magiging sawi ang anumang tangkang mamahala batay lamang sa mga adhika sapagkat ang pangangasiwa sa mga tao ay likas na pagganap sa mga maaari lamang tuparin; ngunit totoo rin na ang pamamahala na walang batayan o labag sa mga adhika ay kalabisan, kalupitan pa, dahil nakakabulok sa lipunan. Ang tagumpay ng pamamahala ay nakakamit sa pagkakasundo ng maaaring tuparin ayon sa mga atas ng kalikasan, at sa mga kailangan ng mga tao. Ang pagsunod dito ay maaatim lamang sa tulong ng karanasan at ng mga adhika; ang pagkatalo ng pamahalaan ay sanhi ng mga paglapastangang bunga ng ganid at kawalang muwang. Kung matagumpay man ang pamamahala sa America, ito ay sanhi ng taimtim na pagsunod sa mga adhika ng kanilang Pahayag ng Kalayaan (Declaration of Independence), at ng Mga Karapatan ng Tao (Rights of Man), mga bunga ng pagsusuri ng mga alituntuning likas sa daigdig.

Matapos ng mahabang pagtatalo ng aking damdamin, natanto ko ang dapat tuparin, at ako ay natahimik, nasiyahan ang aking budhi, at nagpasiya akong sumumpa ng pananalig sa America dahil ito ay hindi maiiwasan, dahil higit na mahalaga kaysa sa pagmamahal sa katotohanan ang pag-ibig na makabalik sa sariling bayan.

Mga Katipunero Isapi ang Pilipinas sa España

Sa maraming kasaysayan ng digmaan at paghahamok sa daigdig, lagi nating nababasa na ang katarungan at katwiran, gaya ng mga lungsod at mga tanggulan, ay lagi nang sumusuko sa may lakas at kapangyarihan, dahil kailangang patuloy na mabuhay ang mga tao, kahit na sila ay masakop at mapasa-ilalim ng manlulupig. Sapagkat ang pagkawala ng buhay ay pagkawala na rin ng katarungan, ng lahat. Ngayong sumuko na ang mga Pilipino sa pagsakop ng America upang hindi sila mapuksa, ang manatili ako sa Guam ay pagsalungat sa kanilang kagustuhan, at pagpapatuloy lamang ng paghahamok na tinanggihan na nila.

Nuong nagpasiyá ang mga tao na makibaka, inako kong tungkulin na makipaglaban sa tabi nila hanggang sa anumang kahinatnan; ngayong hapo at nanghihina na ang mga tao, inaako ko namang tungkulin ang tulungang kupkupin ang kanilang damdamin, payuhan silang huwag mawalán ng pag-asa at patuloy na manalig sa kanilang kakayaháng makamit ang katarungan at kalayaan sa mga darating na araw. Inaamin ko na duwag akong manawagan sa mga tao na mag-aklas, nuong sila ay nasisiyahan pang mabuhay nang mapayapa sa ilalim ng mga malupit na Español. Nagsikap ako kasabáy nina Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar at iba pang nananawagan, matapos ibulgar ang mga kalabisán ng mga frayle, na isapi ang Pilipinas sa kaharián ng España bilang isang lalawigan.

Para lamang hindi matuloy sa madugong pakikibaka ang paghahangad ng mga Pilipino na makaligtas sa kabuktután ng mga frayle. Para lamang hindi naisin ng maraming Pilipino na tumiwalag nang tuluyan at maging malaya na mula sa España. Para lamang hindi matatág ang mga marahás na lipunan, gaya ng Katipunan, o maganáp ang pakikihamok gaya ng himagsikan nuong 1896. Hindik sa dalamhati at pagdurusang magaganáp, hindi ako sumapi sa Katipunan at hindi ako kumampi sa himagsikan.

Kilalanin ang mga karapatan ng tao

Nuon lamang 1898, nang matanaw ko sa buong paligid ang mahigpit na pagmamalupit ng mga Español, nuong parusahan pati ang mga nagmamahal sa España na nagtangkang lunasan ang mga kalabisan ng mga frayle, nuon ko lamang nabatid nang husto ang hangaring ng mga tao, at ang tungkulin ko na tumulong sa himagsikan upang ibagsak ang makaluma at walang silbing pagsakop ng mga dayuhan, ang kinailangang pagtatag ng bagong pamahalaang magkukupkop sa mga Pilipino at magdadala sa atin sa kabihasnan at pagbubuti. Sumanib ako sa himagsikan nuon bilang pagsunod sa mga tao; iiwan ko ang himagsikan ngayon sa dahilan ding ito, - ito ang pasiya ng mga tao.

Ang mga ginawa ko sa nakaraan ang siyang maghuhugis sa mga gagawin ko sa mga darating na araw. Sa halip na magpakana ng pag-aaklas, sisikapin kong maiwasan ito sapagkat sa panahon ng payapa, ito ang tungkulin ng bawat mamamayang nagmamahal sa bayan. Ang bangis ng pakikihamok ko nuong himagsikan ay gagamitin ko ngayon upang makamit ang mga karapatan ng mga Pilipino, sapagkat sa ganitong paraan tiyak na mapagtitibay ang kapayapaan at maiiwasan ang himagsikan. Nakibaka tayo hanggang maubos ang ating lakas at katwiran, wala tayong napala kundi

ipakita ang ating pag-ibig sa kalayaan.

Ngayon, kinikilala na ng America na may karapatan ang mga Pilipino na magkaroon ng kalayaan, kahit na bahagya lamang, nang hindi masyadong maging supil ang ating mga buhay. Nasasa atin ang ipakitang ito nga ang mithi natin, ang kalayaang mapayaman ang ating lahi at kalagayan upang magkasapat na puhunan tayong singilin ang ipinangakong kalayaan mula sa mga Amerkano. Pagtitibayan ko na tutuparin ng America ang pangako nila ng kalayaan dahil batid nila na

  • Hindi ninais ng mga Pilipino, na katunayan ay sapilitan, ang ginawang pagsakop ng America
  • Ang pagpatuloy ng payapa ay nakasalalay sa pagturing na gagawin sa mga Pilipino
  • Ang pagsupil sa mga pulong ng Pilipino upang manawagan para sa kapakanan ng mga tao, gaya ng Liga Filipina, ang nagbunga ng mga lihim na lipunan gaya ng Katipunan na nawagan ng aklasan
  • Sa huli, ang pagsakop na hindi marunong humarap sa gumigising na hangarin ng mga tao na makipag-ugnay sa kabihasnan ng ibang bayan ay magsusulsol sa mga tao na tumiwalag sa pagsakop, habang ito ay nagpapalawak ng bulok at katampalasan sa pamahalaan ng sumasakop.
  • Nalipol Sa Santa Ana Pagtupad lamang sa aking tungkulin

    May sariling dangal ang mga Amerkano dahil batid nila ang kanilang lakas, at maalam sila sa mga gawi ng mondo, kaya idadagdag kong payo na walang dahilang maghinalaan ang magkabilang panig, sa panahong ito na kailangang kalimutan na ang mga nakaraang puot, dapat waksi at palitan ng kasunduan at pakikipag-isa ng Pilipino at Amerkano. Hindi lamang ipinangako ng America na ang ganitong samahan ang tiyak na siguro ng ating pagligaya, sapilitan pang pinaniwala nila tayo nang akuin nilang mangasiwa sa ating kapalaran. Harinawa, ngunit sa kasalukuyan, pagsikapan nating mapagbuti ang ating kalooban at pag-iisip nang maging angkop sa anumang marangal at karapat-dapat na matamasa natin sa buhay, sa pag-asang mahahawi sa mga darating na araw ang takip sa tunay na ligaya at luwalhating naghihintay sa atin.

    Ngayon, dahil hinihingi ng hina ng aking katawan na mamuhay nang tahimik, bumabalik ako sa pinanggalingang bayan upang magkubli, naitaboy ng mga pangyayari sa hindi pagpansin ng madla, at itago ang aking kahihiyan at dalamhati hindi dahil nagkulang ako sa dangal kundi nagkulang ako sa paglilingkod. Hindi ako ang makapagsasabi kung mainam o bansot ang mga ginawa ko, kung ako ay tama o mali, ngunit ipipilit kong sabihin ngayon, sa huli, na wala akong ginhawa sa pait at lungkot ng aking nalalabing buhay maliban sa kasiyahang lagi kong tinupad ang aking tungkulin.

    Nawa’y idulot ng Maykapal na masabi ko uli ito sa oras ng aking pagpanaw.

    Kartilya ng Katipunan~paradise philippines

    Kartilya ng Katipunan
    ni Emilio Jacinto

    1. Ang buhay na hindi ginugugol sa isang malaki at banal na kadahilanan ay kahoy na walang lilim, kundi damong makamandag.
    2. Ang gawang magaling na nagbuhat sa paghahambog o pagpipita sa sarili, at hindi talagang nasang gumawa ng kagalingan, ay di kabaitan.
    3. Ang tunay na kabanalan ay ang pagkakawang-gawa, ang pag-ibig sa kapwa at ang isukat ang bawat kilos, gawa't pangungusap sa talagang Katuwiran.
    4. Maitim man o maputi ang kulay ng balat, lahat ng tao'y magkakapantay; mangyayaring ang isa'y hihigtan sa dunong, sa yaman, sa ganda...; ngunit di mahihigtan sa pagkatao.
    5. Ang may mataas na kalooban, inuuna ang puri kaysa pagpipita sa sarili; ang may hamak na kalooban, inuuna ang pagpipita sa sarili kaysa sa puri.
    6. Sa taong may hiya, salita'y panunumba.
    7. Huwag mong sayangin ang panahon; ang yamang nawala'y mangyayaring magbalik; ngunit panahong nagdaan ay di na muli pang magdadaan.
    8. Ipagtanggol mo ang inaapi; kabakahin ang umaapi.
    9. Ang mga taong matalino'y ang may pag-iingat sa bawat sasabihin; matutong ipaglihim ang dapat ipaglihim.
    10. Sa daang matinik ng buhay, lalaki ang siyang patnugot ng asawa at mga anak; kung ang umaakay ay tungo sa sama, ang pagtutunguhan ng inaakay ay kasamaan din.
    11. Ang babae ay huwag mong tingnang isang bagay na libangan lamang, kundi isang katuwang at karamay sa mga kahirapan nitong buhay; gamitin mo nang buong pagpipitagan ang kanyang kahinaan, at alalahanin ang inang pinagbuharan at nag-iwi sa iyong kasanggulan.
    12. Ang di mo ibig gawin sa asawa mo, anak at kapatid, ay huwag mong gagawin sa asawa, anak at kapatid ng iba.

    ako ay maka bonifacio

    Nasaan na si Bonifacio sa pera

    naalala mo ba kung saan nakalagay na pera ang mukha ni Andres Bonifacio kung naalala mo panoorin mo ito.

    Palagay mo sino ang unang pangulo?

    Sa iyong palagay sino ang unang pangulo si Andres Bonfacio ba o si Emilio Aguinaldo or panoorin mo ito.

    Andres Bonifacio - The Great Plebian and Father of the Katipunan.

    Heroes of the Philippine Revolution

    Painting of Andres Bonifcaio

    Andres Bonifacio

    Long ago, in the days when Tondo, Manila was a town dotted with rice fields, a poor couple was married in Tondo church. The groom was a short muscular Filipino named Santiago Bonifacio. He was a boatman who rowed people from Taguig, Rizal, to other towns along the Pasig River. The bride, Catalina de Castro, was a mestiza born of a Spanish father and a Filipino-Chinese mother from Zambales. She worked as a maestra, or supervisor, in a cigarette factory in Meisic ("Maintsik"), which today is Manila’s Chinatown.

    On November 30, 1863, Catalina gave birth to a baby boy in a small wood-and-nipa hut in Tutuban, a swamp-like part of Tondo. The name Tutuban means the place where they make tuba, an alcoholic drink made from coconuts. The proud parents named the boy Andres, after St. Andrew the Apostle, the patron saint of Manila.

    Andres had three brothers and two sisters. Their names were Ciriaco, Procopio, Esperidiona, Troadio, and Maxima.

    Young Andres learned to read and write the alphabet in Tagalog and Spanish from a caton, or primer book, given to him by an aunt. Later he went to school in Meisic. His teacher was Guillermo Osmena, a schoolmaster from Cebu.

    Tondo had always been a poor man’s town. People from all over the country who came looking for work in Manila made Tondo their first home. In 1877, when Andres was 14 years old, 10,620 Spaniards and their household helpers lived in the walled city of Intramuros. By comparison, 26,266 people lived in Tondo.

    Poor families like the Bonifacios had to work very hard just to make ends meet. But the 1870s was a time of great hardship. Outbreaks of cholera and rinderpest disease spread throughout the city. People fell ill and many work animals, such as carabaos and horses, died. Typhoons destroyed a lot of homes and farms. The price of food and other goods soared.

    The money Andres’s mother earned in the cigarette factory was not enough to feed a family of sic growing children. By this time Andres’s father was working as a cargador at the busy docks of Binondo. He carried heavy loads of muscovado sugar and bundles of rattan. He had even served as a teniente mayor, or vice-mayor, of Tondo. But now he had caught a deadly disease called tuberculosis. He became too weak to keep his job. At home Santiago made walking canes and paper fans out of rattan. He also sewed other people’s clothes, a trade he learned from his father. Then Andres’s mother caught tuberculosis too. She died in 1881. Andres’s father died a year later.

    Andres gave up his studies to work full time. At first he was a bodeguero (warehouse keeper) in a mosaic tile factory in Sta. Mesa in Sampaloc. Later he got a job as a clerk. After that he bought tar and ties as an agent for the English firm of J.M. Fleming & Company in Binondo.

    In 1886 the Manila Railway Company had plans to build a railroad line from Manila to Dagupan, Pangasinan. They asked the Fleming company to help build the railroad. The railroad tracks would cut across Tondo. The Fleming company bought many houses, including the Bonifacio house in Tutuban, and knocked them down to make way for the railroad. Today, over a hundred years later, the trains still run through the Tutuban railroad station, near the place where Andres Bonifacio was born.

    Andres was an honest and hard worker. He tried his best to feed and care for his brothers and sisters. He helped his two brothers find jobs. Ciriaco became a train conductor and Procopio worked for the Manila Railway Company.

    Andres was always trying to find ways to make money for his family. He had beautiful penmanship and made attractive posters for companies such as clothes dealers. He had learned to make rattan walking canes and paper fans from his father. He continued to make them with his brothers and sisters in the evenings. By day their canes and fans were sold in the busy streets of Manila. Andres also wove and sold dozens of bamboo hats. In his free time he acted on stage with his brothers in moro-moero plays in Palomar, Tondo. Moro-moro plays were about the fight between Muslims and Christians.

    After five years, Bonifacio left the Fleming company and joined a German firm named Carlos Fressel & Company. He worked there as a bodeguero and supply clerk. He was paid twelve pesos a month. By 1892 he was promoted to sales agent.

    Bonifacio took great care to dress neatly and well even though he couldn’t afford to have stylish clothes. According to a close friend, Andres always wore an open coat with a matching necktie and black hat. Rain or shine, he always carried an umbrella.

    Although he never finished high school, Andres Bonifacio was very smart. He knew Spanish and spoke a little English, which he learned while working for the Fleming company. He read foreign novels, as well as books about the French revolution, politics, law, and religion. Books opened his mind to new worlds. Andres learned that common people had rights and that freedom was a valuable thing to have. The Philippines had been a colony ruled by Spain since the sixteenth century. But the Filipino people did not have the same rights as the Spaniards. Inspired by new ideas, Andres began to dream that a better life was possible for his fellow Filipinos.

    On July 3, 1892, a man named Jose Rizal started a group called La Liga Filipina. The group was made up mostly of Filipinos from the middle class. The educated middle class believed that Spain would grant much needed reforms if the Philippines were made a province of Spain and Filipinos became Spanish citizens.

    Bonifacio admired Rizal. He had read his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. Andres joined La Liga Filipina and worked hard to spread its teachings of charity and brotherhood.

    La Liga Filipina was a peaceful group that did not believe in violence. But the Spanish government thought it was dangerous. They had Rizal secretly arrested and set away, or exiled, to Dapitan, a lonely island in the South.

    When Bonifacio learned that Rizal had been exiled, he knew in his heart that the days of peaceful reform were over. He believed it would take no less than an armed revolution to free the Philippines from Spanish rule. Unlike Rizal and other people in the reform movement, Bonifacio believed that the Philippines should be totally separated from Spain.

    In his essay "What the Filipinos Should Know," Bonifacio wrote in Tagalog: "Reason tells us that we cannot expect anything but more sufferings, more treachery, more insults, and more slavery. Reason tells us not to fritter away time for the promised prosperity that will never come….Reason teaches us to rely on ourselves and not to depend on others for our living. Reason tells us to be united…that we may have the strength to combat the evils in our country."

    Bonifacio also wrote about how the Filipinos were tortured by the Spaniards. They were bound, kicked, and hit with gun butts. They were electrocuted and hung upside down like cattle. He said that Filipino prisoners were "thrown into the sea…shot, poisoned…."

    For Bonifacio, it was time to take action.

    On the night of July 7, 1892 – the same day he heard that Rizal had been exiled – Bonifacio met secretly with his friends at a house on Azcarraga Street (now Claro M. Recto) in Tondo. Together with his two friends Ladislao Diwa and Teodoro Plata, he formed the first triangle of a secret society which bore the initials K.K.K. The three letters stood for Kataastaasan Kagalang-galang na Katipunan nang manga Anak nang Bayan, or Katipunan, for short.

    The name Katipunan shows how Bonifacio was influenced by Rizal. Instead of using the old Spanish spelling of the letter "c," Bonifacio used the Tagalog spelling of "k." Rizal had suggested the change in an article published two years earlier in the newspaper La Solidaridad. The "k," pronouched ka, was based on the ancient Tagalog script (I). Since the Katipunan was an underground society, its members used secret codes and passwords to communicate with each other.

    The Katipunan had three aims. First, it wanted to free the Philippines from Spain, by force of arms if necessary. Its members, called Katipuneros, were taught to make and use weapons. Next came the moral, or spiritual, aim. The Katipunan saw all men, rich or poor, as equals. Third, the Katipuneros were taught to care for one another in times of sickness and need. The society took care of its sick. If a member died, the Katipunan helped to pay the cost of a simple funeral.

    The people who joined the Katipunan came mostly from the poor working class, although some members, such as Dr. Pio Valenzuela and Mariano Alvarez, belonged to the middle class. The membership of the Katipunan grew to the thousands.

    To keep the Katipunan from being discovered by the Spaniards, new members were enlisted through the triangle method. This is how it worked. A recruiter would ask two members to join. That recruiter would know the names of the two members, but the recruits themselves would not know each other. Thus a member’s knowledge about the group was limited and controlled. But the triangle method was slow. After October 1892, all Katipuneros could recruit as many members as they could.

    Any man who wanted to join the Katipunan had to pass first a number of tests to prove his courage and sincerity. Wearing a black robe, the new recruit was led blindfolded into a darkly lit room. He was told to answer these questions: (1) "In what condition did the Spaniards find the Filipino people when they came?"; (2) "In what condition do they find themselves now?"; and (3) What hope do the Filipino people have for the future?"

    This was followed by other tests for the would-be-Katipunero. The final test was the sandugoBlood compact). The recruit was asked to make a small cut on his left forearm with a sharp knife. He then signed the Katipunan oat in his own blood. Afterwards, the new member chose a symbolic name for himself. For example, Bonifacio was called "Maypag-asa" (Hopeful).

    Women who joined the Katipunan were limited to the wives, daughters, or close relatives of the Katipuneros. The women’s chapter of the Katipunan was formed in July 1893. Only about thirty females were known to have joined this secret society. The women did not have to seal their membership with a blood compact. During Katipunan meetings, they wore green masks, and white sashes with green borders. Sometimes they carried revolvers or daggers. They usually served as lookouts in the outer sala (living room) while the men held their secret meetings in the backroom.

    There were two important women in Bonifacio’s life. His first wife – a neighbor from Palomar named Monica – died of leprosy. He met his second wife when he was a 29-year old widower. Her name was Gregoria de Jesus.

    Gregoria was a beautiful girl of 18 from Kalookan. Like Andres, she was the oldest child and a bright student who stopped studying to take care of her family. Gregoria looked after her younger sister and the family farm. On Sunday mornings she paid the workers. At home she sewed and wove cloth on the loom or helped her mother work around the house.

    Andres and Gregoria were married twice. Their first wedding was held in Binondo Church in March 1894. They were married again a week later in a house in Sta. Cruz. The ceremony was attended by members of the Katipunan. That evening Gregoria de Jesus became a member of the women’s chapter of the Katipunan. Her code name was "Lakangbini" (Goddess or Muse).

    Andres and Gregoria had a baby boy. They named him Andres and he was their only child. On Holy Week of 1896, a fire destroyed their nipa-roofed house in Sta. Cruz. Homeless, the couple and their baby were forced to live in one house after another. The loss of their home was followed by an even greater loss, when young Andres died of smallpox.

    On August 19, 1896, the Katipunan was found out. Father Mariano Gil, the Augustinian parish priest of Tondo, learned about it from Teodoro Patino, an unhappy member of the Katipunan. The Spanish police moved quickly to stop the revolution. Many Filipinos were arrested, jailed, and shot. Andres and Gregoria went into hiding.

    The Katipunan was discovered before the rebels were ready for a fully armed struggle. But Bonifacio knew that the die had been cast. There was no turning back. The time had come for the Filipino people to engage the enemy in battle.

    Bonifacio met with other Katipunan leaders in a place called Pugadlawin, on August 23, 1896. They tore up their cedulas (residence tax papers) and cried "Long Live the Philippines!" They vowed to fight the Spaniards down to the last man.

    On August 30, Andres Bonifacio and his best friend, Emilio Jacinto, fought the first battle of the Philippine Revolution. Leading an army of eight hundred men, they attacked a gunpowder storehouse in San Juan del Monte (now San Juan, Metro Manila). Today the place is called Pinaglabanan, meaning battlefield. The storehouse was an important military post for the Spanish army, but it was defended by only a hundred men. Outnumbered, the Spaniards retreated to El Deposito, the place where the Spaniards stored the water supply for the city of Intramuros.

    Encouraged by the Spaniards’ retreat, Bonifacio and his rebels advanced towards Manila. They were met by an army of soldiers sent by Ramon Blanco, the Spanish governor-general. Bonifacio’s men were driven back to Mandaluyong by the Spaniards. More than a hundred-fifty Katipuneros died. Another two hundred were captured. Some of them were shot at Bagumbayan Field, which is today called Luneta Park.

    In the area of Manila, the battle of Pinaglabanan and fighting in Kalookan sparked other small battles north and south of the Pasig River, in places such as Marikina, San Mateo, Pasig, Pateros and Taguig. That same day Governor-General Blanco declared a state of war in eight provinces: Manila, Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, and Tarlac. The Spanish government did not want the revolt to spread to other provinces. It was determined to punish the rebels and all who helped them.

    In December 1896, Bonicaio was invited by the Katipuneros of Cavite to come to the town of Imus. Thanks to a string of victories led by Emilio Aguinald, the rebels now controlled most of the province. Bonifacio, as the highest officer, or Supremo, of the Katipunan, was asked to settle a dispute.

    There were two rival Katipunan councils in Cavite. One council was the Magdalo, of which Aguinaldo was a member. The other was the Magdiwang council, headed by Mariano Alvarez, a relative of Bonifacio’s wife.

    Bonifacio’s decision to come to Cavite proved to be the beginning of his downfall. There was a time when the two men – Aguinaldo and Bonifacao – respected and valued each other. The Supremo himself had admitted Aguinaldo into the Katipunan in his house in Binondo. Aguinaldo recalled this historic moment in his biography when he wrote, "That was the beginning of my acquaintance and friendship with Andres Bonifacio." And when news of Bonifacio’s defeat in the battle of Pinaglabanan reached the Katipuneros in Cavite, Aguinaldo, worried for the Supremo’s safety, sent his men to look for Bonifacio in the forests of Kalookan and Malabon.

    But the friendship between the two men soured. Bonifacio and his army had suffered a number of defeats at the hands of the enemy. In contrast, Aguinaldo and his rebels had managed to boot the Spaniards out of most of Cavite. The feeling of regionalism between the Tondo native and the young man from Kawit, Cavite was very strong. Also, the two leaders differed in their political ideas.

    Aguinaldo and the Magdalo group believed it was time to form a new kind of government. Aguinaldo had already suggested that the Katipunan government be changed to a revolutionary form of government modeled after the American system. Although he was only a Magdalo flag lieutenant at the time, his bold ideas challenged the power of the Supremo.

    Bonifacio and the Magdiwang men believed that the Katipunan government was still useful. It could still answer the Filipino’s need for change. It had its own constitution and bylaws. In other words, at this point in our history there were two leaders with two different views on how to run the government.

    The rivalry between the two groups weakened the rebels’ hold on Cavite. Aguinald’s Magdalo soldiers did not want to help defend the towns held by Magdiwang soldiers when they were attacked by the Spaniards. Bonifacio’s Magdiwang soldiers did not help the Magdalo rebels when the enemy attacked their towns. The result was that almost all the towns once held by the Katipuneros easily fell one by one to the Spaniards.

    The rivalry worsened during the Tejeros convention held on March 22, 1897. The aim of the convention was to form a central revolutionary government that would unite the two councils. An election of officers was held in Tejeros. Although he was away fighting the Spaniards in Dasmarinas, Cavite, Emilio Aguinaldo was elected president of the new revolutionary government. Bonifacio was nominated for the position of director of the interior, but Daniel Tirona of Kawit stood up and questioned his ability to hold that job. Tirona said that the position needed someone with a law degree.

    Bonifacio took Tirona’s words as an insult. He declared that, as the leader of the Katipunan, all the acts of the Tejeros convention were unlawful. Hurt and angry, he left with his wife, his two brothers, and some trusted bodygurads.

    A day later Emilio Aguinaldo became president of the new revolutionary government. He was sworn into office along with other elected officials, most of whom were Cavitenos. Bonifacio was not present.

    Bonifacio refused to recognize Aguinaldo’s government. He thought he was still the Supremo of the Katipunan government. In fact, he formed a new government wholly separate and independent from the one formed at the Tejeros convention. The following month he drafted a military agreement in Naic, Cavite. It was signed by about forty men.

    Bonifacio and his men left Naic for barrio Limbon in the nearby town of Indang. On April 26, 1897, Bonifacio was arrested by two loyal officers of Aguinaldo – Colonel Agapito Bonzon and Aguinaldo’s brother-in-law Major Jose Ignacio Paua. Bonifacio and his men put up a fight. Andres’s brother Ciriaco was killed. The Supremo himself was shot in his left arm. Major Paua jumped at Bonifacio and stabbed the left side of his neck with a dagger.

    From Indang, a half-starved and wounded Bonifacio was carried by hammock to Naic, which had become President Aguinaldo’s headquarters.

    Andres Bonifacio was tried by the military court in Maragondon, Cavite. He was charged with treason and trying to overthrow the new president and his government. One witness even swore that he was paid ten pesos by Bonifacio to kill Aguinaldo. By some accounts Andres was not given a fair chance to defend himself.

    On May 8, 1897, Andres and Procopio Bonifacio were sentenced to death. However, according to Aguinaldo, he changed their sentence and asked for them to be exiled instead. But Aguinaldo was advised by his generals to go ahead with the death sentence. They reasoned that Bonifacio’s death was necessary to protect the best interests of the revolution. Alive, Bonifacio would only threaten and divide the revolutionary forces.

    On the early morning of May 10, 1897, a group of soldiers led by General Lazaro Makapagal brought Andres and Procopio from the Maragondon jail. This was the order of General Mariano Noriel, president of the council of war that tried the Bonifacio brothers. Makapagal had been handed a sealed letter, with strict orders to read it after reaching Mt. Nagpatong in the Maragondon mountains. Only four soldiers were selected by the general to accompany him on this mission.

    When the soldiers and their two prisoners reached Mt. Nagpatong, Makapagal opened the sealed letter. It was an order from General Noriel to execute Andres and Procopio. Makapagal immediately carried out the general’s command and the Bonifacio brothers were shot. Using their bayonets and bolos (long knives), the soldiers dug a shallow grave for the two men. After covering the bodies with twigs and weeds, they hurriedly left to escape the Spanish troops who were combing the mountains of Maragondon.

    The Bonifacio brothers were killed on Monday, May 10, 1897. Andres was only 34 years old.

    Some twenty years passed. On March 17, 1918, Lazaro Makapagal came back to Cavite. He was accompanied by a group of government officials, two former Cavite generals, and former soldiers of the Philippine Revolution. They went to a lonely spot on a sugarcane field in the Maragondon mountains to find Andres Bonifacio’s grave. The place had changed a lot. An old and loyal servant of Bonifacio showed them the way and identified his master’s remains.

    Bonifacio’s bones were placed in an urn and kept in the Legislative Building (now the National Museum). Bonifacio’s papers and personal belongings, including his revolver and bolo, were also kept here. In February 1945, during the battle to free Manila from the Japanese, the building and the remains of Andres Bonifacio were destroyed in a fire.

    Today the Filipino nation honors Andres Bonifacio as the "Father of the Philippine Revolution." He was a leader who believed that the common could be organized and put into action. Indeed he was not disappointed for he found good patriots among them. Many were even willing to die for their country. Despite his poverty and lack of education, Bonifacio went beyond the steps taken by the educated and moneyed class of Filipinos pushing for peaceful change. Eventually even reformers such as Apolinario Mabini and Marcelo H. del Pilar realized that freedom could not be won from Spain without use of force.

    To this day historians argue whether Bonifacio or Rizal was right. In June 1896 Bonifacio sent his aide Dr. Pio Valenzuela to Dapitan to meet with Rizal. On learning about the Katipunan, Rizal opposed the revolutionary aims of the society. It was not because he did not believe in the revolution. As a student of history, Rizal honestly believed that the Filipino people were not yet ready for an armed struggle in 1896. They still lacked weapons and funds for war.

    Had Bonifacio listened to Rizal, there probably would have been no revolution. In the end, the people’s cry for freedom and justice brought down the walls of colonial power. The outbreak of the Philippine Revolution in August 1896 was the beginning of the end of three-and-a-half centuries of Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines.

    About the Author

    Dr. Isagani R. Medina has won numerous awards and citations for his work as one of the most prolific writers of history in the country. He holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in library science and a Ph.D. in history from the University of the Philippines, as well as a masters degree from the University of Michigan.

    Dr. Medina is co-author of History of the Filipino People (Eighth Edition, 1990) by Teodoro A. Agoncillo, the Streets of Manila, and The Complete Works of Claro M. Recto.

    He is currently professor of history at the University of the Philippines, College of Social Sciences and Philosophy, in Diliman, Quezon City. He is from Corregidor, Cavite.

    Text copyright 1992 by Isagani R. Medina. All rights reserved

    Taken from The Great Lives Series, Andres Bonifacio, of Tahanan Books for Young Readers, Distributed by Bookmark.